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Full text of "The Training School Quarterly April, May, June 1916"

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Table of Contents 

Extension Teaching in Agriculture and Household Arts in Ireland, 


Pictures — Educative and Decorative John J. Blaib 

Art in Child Life Jaques Bcsbee 

Public School Drawing Kate W. Lewis 

Dining-room Decorations at the Training School Maby Raxkin 

Pine Needle Basketry .^ Fax.xie Lee Speib 

County Commencements Daisy Bailey Waitt 

Editorials. ' , 

Suggestions — 

Bird Study in the First Grade Miriam McFadyeit 

Making Bean Bags in the Second Grade Mylitta Mobbis 

Design in the Fourth Grade. 

Miscellaneous Suggestions for the Third Grade. 

Illustrating Rhymes Millie Roebuck 

Question Box. 



School Organizations. 

School Notes. 

School Spice. 

Scenes Fuo.m 'The School i-oi: Sianuai, 

^fje draining ^tfjool (0uartei:lj> 

Vol. II. APRIL, MAY, JUNE, 1915. No. 1. 

Extension Teaching in Agriculture and 
Household Arts in Ireland 

Specialist in Rural Education United States Bureau of Education. 

CHE growth of the movement in the United States for extension 
teaching in Agriculture and Household Arts on the part of the 
State Colleges of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts during the past 
ten years has created great interest in this subject. Especially is this 
so at the present time on account of the action of the last Congress in 
providing Federal aid to these institutions for such extension work under 
what is knovm as the Smith-Lever Act. Information is being sought in 
all parts of the world where similar undertakings are to be found in order 
that the best schemes in operation may be made use of in the United 
States. Among various countries of Europe from which valuable les- 
sons for the United States may be obtained is Ireland. The Irish plan 
of extension teaching in Agriculture and Household Arts is probably the 
best organized in the world, not only on paper, but in practice as well. 
The writer spent several months in Europe early in 1914, studying the 
work of various educational agencies for the benefit of rural people, one 
month of which was spent in Ireland, making a special study of this 
extension teaching. 

There are four distinct movements in Ireland for the bettennent of 
rural folk which are attracting world attention. The first is the work 
of the Congested Districts Board, organized about sixteen years ago by 
an act of Parliament and charged with the duty and authority to pur- 
chase, at forced sale if necessary, the great estates given over to grazing 
cattle and sheep, to divide these estates into forty-acre fanns, and to sell 
these small farms to Irish peasants living in the "congested districts." 
This term is applied to certain sections — in the peat bogs and on the 
mountain sides — where the population is many times greater than the 
land is capable of supporting. The population in these districts are the 
descendants of tenants evicted from the good agricultural lands now 
being divided when such lands were turned over from cultivation to gi'az- 
ing. These large estates have been owned since the conquest of Ireland 
by Oliver Cromwell by English landlords and were farmed by Irish 
tenants. "When American agricultural products found the English mar- 
ket in large quantities, beef and mutton became more profitable than 
other agricultural products. Tenants were forced from their holdings 

2 Thk Tkainino School Quautkkly. 

by exorbitant rents, so that the land might be turned into pasturage. 
The only places open to them for settlement were the bad lauds in the 
peat moors and on the rocky mountain sides. "Dug over" peat land — 
that is, land from which the peat has been removed — is capable of culti- 
vation. Tiny patches of the mountain sides were cleared of stones and 
used as gardens. The conditions under which people were living in the 
peat moors and on the mountains is hardly imaginable and is almost im- 
possible of description. Such a description, however, is unnecessary 
here. To these people the good agricultural lands are now being opened 
up, slowly, of course, as time is required to settle litigations with land- 
owners who are unwilling to give up their estates, and to sur\'ey and 
divide the estates, to build the necessary roadways, provide drainage, and 
erect houses on each farm. Wlien the estates are ready for settlement, 
the small farms, -with the houses erected on them, are sold on long terms, 
sixty-six annual payments covering principal and interest. These an- 
nual payments are less than was formerly charged for rent. 

It was the pleasure of the writer to ride about three old estates — 
thirty thousand acres in all — of the most beautiful agricultural land.s one 
could imagine. One of these had been divided and settled seven years 
before, the second two years before, and the third was being divided at 
the time of the visit. On the first were living between two hundred and 
three hundred families in neat cottages surrounded by well-kept and well- 
cultivated farms bearing all the marks of an industrious, prosperous, and 
happy people. The contrast between the condition of these people and 
those in the congested districts not over a dozen miles away was more 
marked than that between the best white people of North Carolina and 
the poorest negroes. 

The second movement was the establishment of the Irish Agricultural 
Organization Society, the I. A. O. S. as it is usually called. In 1889 
Sir Horace Plunket and a few other Irishmen saw that Ireland must 
organize her agricultural people in order that her agricultural products 
could compete successfully in the English market with the agricultural 
products of such European countries as Denmark, where the farmers 
were organized, and those of North and South America, and other far 
away countries brought close by cheap transportation. Aft«r five years 
of educational campaigning, the I. A. O. S. was formed to assist in the 
formation of farmers' organizations for buying and selling, and for bor- 
rowing money. In the first ten years of its existence, over four hundred 
organizations were formed. By 1914 there were approximately twice as 
many. All do not attempt to do the same work. Some are buying and 
selling organizations only, buying at whole-sale in quantities the things 
needed on the farms of their members and selling, in large lots without 
the assistance of middlemen, carefully sorted and packed agricultural 
products such as butter, eggs, poultry, bacon, ham, honey, etc. Many 
are creamery associations, owning and operating creameries making a 

Methods in Teaching Agriculture 3 

teaching has been, to say the least, not uniform in its character. One 
school will be emphasizing one line of the work while another school 
emphasizes a different line. The text-books adopted have often been 
poor and indefinite in their subject matter. The instructors in agri- 
culture have sometimes given a false impression regarding their work 
because they themselves are not as fully cultured as they should be along 
the lines of good English, good methods of presentation and system in 
their work. They manage to entertain their students well and, perhaps, 
their actual instruction in the subject-matter itself is entirely sound. 
To properly get credit for their work, they should have true culture not 
only along agricultural lines, but along all lines. The teacher of agri- 
culture in the high school must be as well trained and express himself 
as well as the teacher of English. He must have his mathematics at 
his finger tips as accurately as the teacher of that branch. He should 
be as neat in his person and as well dressed as any member of the high 
school faculty. When such qualities are found in agricultural teachers 
the courses themselves will be found to appeal more readily to the 
college authorities. 

A great danger exists in this wide breach between colleges and high 
schools. The people nearest the high schools are clamoring for more of 
the modem instruction in them. The work is coming on rapidly and 
even more rapidly than we are able to prepare good teachers for the 
work. Some universities, and, indeed, most of the old-line colleges, are 
falling far behind in this movement. They still insist that all the units 
for entrance and advance credit be along the old lines. What is to be 
the result ? We can see it coming everywhere. The high school will be 
the finishing school. Many high schools will add one or two more years 
and credit the students with the work they have taken in the first four 
years. Junior colleges are springing up and taking the high school 
graduates where they find them, and crediting them with the work they 
have actually done along any good lines. In many cases high school 
students apply for admission to colleges and find they are "conditioned" 
because of not having enough of the old-line work. They enter with 
these "conditions" and a large per cent drop out at the end of one or 
two years. 

The breach is being mended by a number of liberal colleges and uni- 
versities, and, perhaps, others will fall into line in this regard. Entrance 
requirements are interpreted liberally and credit is given either on the 
actual time basis for crediting of high school work, or a certain definite 
multiple for the vocational courses is fixed by the University. 

Vieivpoint of Agriculhiral Instructors. Have you ever visited a high 
school where agriculture is taught and foimd the instructor in doubt 
regarding the creditability of his own work? Well, such an attitude of 
modesty may be commendable, but modesty should only go so far as the 
personal factor is involved, and should not extend to the subject-matter 

4 The Training School Qiarterly 

itself. If the instructor in agriculture is not positive that his subject- 
matter has true cultural value, and that it should be credited towards 
graduation and towards admission to college, then why should we expect 
others to step in and offer such credit? We must have first a body of 
agricultural instructors throughout the country who have faith in the 
subject, who know its culture and can prove that its value, in this regard 
at least, equal any other high school subjects. They must have faith in 
the soundness of its teachings. Yea, they should be even enthusiastic 
in these regards. Projjer enthusiasm, well backed by sound and thorough 
teaching will help wonderfully in securing proper credit for agricultural 

Wherein the CuHure Lies. Let us see along M'hat lines agriculture 
offers true culture to students pursuing it as a high school study, 

1. Interest is maintained. There is real culture in true interest, and 
because of true interest in a subject the student gains more of all 
elements in that subject when pursuing it. If culture is one of the 
elements, then he gains more culture because of more interest. The 
reason that agriculture is an interesting subject is found along several 
lines. Its newness appeals to some. The fact that it deals with live 
things — animals, plants and things familiar to us — makes the students 
like it better. Its practical value in teaching things that we want to 
know and its economic relation to earning a livelihood help to keep 
up an interest in the minds of many. 

2. "Agriculture is the livest subject in the educational world today." 
A really dead subject cannot offer much culture. At least such culture 
is not the kind for which Ave are striving. 

3. Real art and applied art are closely associated with agricultural 
studies. All will admit the cultural value of painting, drawing and the 
study of the fine arts. In landscape gardening and floriculture, we find 
these arts not only deeply studied, but actually applied to the soil. The 
plants, including trees, shrubs, vines and flowers, and the proper placing 
of these carefully, form the very best cultural training. To put a daub of 
paint in the right place requires no more culture than to put a tree or a 
shrub in the right place. Relationships with surroundings are as deeply 
studied and as well or better Avrought. True expression of cultural value 
is found in a number of agricultural subjects. When a boy studies the 
harmonious blending of lines of a typical animal, or in selecting and 
culling a flock of laying hetis, studies the forms and lines in their rela- 
tionship to each other, he is applying the training about which the 
student of art merely theorizes. 

4. Mental action is called for more in the pursuit of this subject than 
in mathematics, language, history, or even in literature itself. Hun- 
dreds of lessons require the student to exercise mental activity of his 
own in addition to following the mental channels of instructors, authors, 
and predecessors even of former times. Isn't there as much mental 

Methods in Teaching Agriculture 5 

action in laying out an orchard by the three methods — quadrangle, 
quincunx, and hexagonal — as in giving the principal parts of a Latin 
verb and showing their uses ? Isn't there as much training in calculat- 
ing the cost of a drainage project as in learning how to demonstrate the 
binomial theorem? 

5. Agriculture trains the memory as well as other high school sub- 
jects. The student of agriculture needs many facts at his tongue's end. 
He has so many of these facts which he must apply and he almost uncon- 
sciously remembers the facts because of the need for remembering them. 
In calculating the yields of certain fields, he uses certain tables which 
the student of mathematics learns merely as a culture in themselves. 
He makes use of the classification of insects when he is trying to combat 
them. The student of biology considers the classification an end in 
itself, while the student of agriculture does not stop here, but finds an 
application for the knowledge and is a long step ahead of the biology 
student. In applying remedies for insects and plant diseases he is 
another long step ahead of the student of chemistry, for he has the knowl- 
edge of the chemist and is making use of it. Even in simpler lines of 
agriculture study the memory is used in establishing rotation courses, 
planning field practices, formulating schedules of farm operations, and 
in numerous other lessons. 

6. Probably in no other subject is reasoning from cause to effect more 
highly developed than in such a practical subject as agriculture. The 
logician deals with simple abstract premises, and reasons by i-ules laid 
down for him, reaching conclusions which follow those rules. Is such 
training of more cultural value than to reason why a dust mulch holds 
moisture when it applies the principles and properties of capillarity, 
porosity, film movement, evaporation, and percolation? True agriciil- 
tural teaching requires the student to give reasons for things. Eote 
teaching or rule teaching is not good teaching in such a subject as this. 
Always the application of sciences to practice requires great mental 
activity and the soundest reasoning. Ask a high school student in 
agriculture how a glass over the hot-bed aids in the heating of the bed, 
and you will usually get a far better answer than from the student of 
physics, but if the latter student has the principle as well learned he 
cannot always apply it. Here, again, we find the agricultural student 
has the principles as well as the student of another subject, and, in 
addition, finds an application for the principle. Take the case of pro- 
ducing a balanced ration for dairy cows. The student is dealing with 
organic chemistry. He knows what elements in the feed cause certain 
results in the animals' production. He knows their physiological effects 
on the animal. Here he is a long step ahead of the mere student of 
chemistry and physiology because he has their knowledge, and also the 
application of the knowledge. 

7. Application of Knowledge is of Cultural Value. The student is a 

6 The Tkaining StiiooL Quarterly 

better botanist because be can apply tbc knowledge of plants instead of 
attempting to bold tbat knowledge in an abstract fonu. Tbe average 
bigb scbool student in botany may study sometbing of tbe legume family 
of plants, for example, but our student goes far beyond tliis and knows 
tbe feeding values of tbose plants, tbeir agricultural benefits as a wbole, 
and tbeir effect upon tbe world-wide problem of soil maintenance and 
food production. He sees bow tbis family of ])lants is used to maintain 
tbe soil to solve tbe starvation problem of animals and man, to save 
expenditure of millions of dollars for commercial fertilizers, tbe supplies 
of wbicb are rapidly being exbausted. In like manner we migbt go into 
details regarding tbe application of tbe lessons in zoology to tbe farm 
practices themselves. Bacteriology finds its application in dairy prac- 
tice; tbe control of plant and animal diseases and in tbe sanitation of 
tbe farm bome. Cbemistry is studied by tbe agricultural student so tbat 
be may be able to apply it to spraying, fertilizing, feeding, treatment 
of animal diseases and in otber ways. He studies tbe principles of 
pbysics and mechanics so tbat be can better manage bis machinery, 
better drain his fields, solve his water supply problems and install irriga- 
tion projects. 

8. The student of agriculture is often a better student of history than 
otber high scbool students. He learns the history of the ancients in their 
management of grains, alfalfa, and soil management, and applies the 
lessons gained from that knowledge to present-day practices. Such his- 
tory has a tangible side and is more easily remembered than abstract 
facts which have little relation to our lives of today. 

9. The student of mathematics never gets so far as to apply his mathe- 
matics to land drainage, irrigation, water supply for the farmstead, 
calculating ingredients for home-made mixtures of fertilizers, the calcu- 
lation of balanced rations, different lines of feed supply for a year's 
feeding of a number of farm stock. We see here that the agricultural 
student goes a step further than the mathematical student in each of 
these lines. 

In going over these concrete examples, no effort has been made by the 
writer to make them complete or to cover the whole field of agriculture. 
There are hundreds of illustrations tbat are just as valuable as the ones 
here selected. 

We are compelled to admit that many have been called upon to teach 
agriculture because they knew something about farm practices, but they 
bad taken no course leading to the teaching of tbe subject. We must not 
then be too severe upon tbe critics who have received tbeir impressions 
from the work of such instructors. Some few of these have been more 
or less successful, but many of them have been terrible failures when 
viewed from the standpoint of creditable work. 

If this matter is viewed from the standpoint of entrance committees of 
the colleges, we can hardly blame them for discrediting work done in 

Methods in Teaching Agriculture 7 

agriculture by high school students. A great change in this regard is 
bound to come, as teachers become better trained in methods of handling 
the subject. We may soon hail the day when colleges will give credit for 
the work done in agriculture in high schools where the instructor has 
had special training in both method and subject-matter. 

The literature of the subject has developed rapidly in the last decade. 
A number of books have appeared which aid teachers in properly pre- 
senting the subject to their students, but there is yet far too little which 
shows just how to correlate the practical side of practice and laboratory 
method with the rest of the subject. Too much is still given in the form 
of lectures and cramming. We must learn to give proper 
training and cultural work through the more tangible forms of instruc- 

Grasshopper Schoolteachers 

One fundamental difficulty limits the value of these and all other good 
things in common school education in North Carolina : the plague of 
school teachers who swarm into and out of the school districts of every 
county every year, very much like a plague of Kansas grasshoppers. 

Recently we found one county in which two-thirds of the country 
schools are being taught by brand new teachers, and another in which, 
three-fourths of the country schools have changed teachers since last year.. 

This kaleidoscopic change of teachers is a chronic affliction in every 
State of the Union. It reduces to a minimum the value of every dollar 
jspent in public education. How can country schools of permanent and 
increasing influence grow out of a condition like this? Such wholesale 
changes would bankrupt a cotton mill anywhere in a season or two, or 
any other business whatsoever. And it spells bankruptcy for our dreams 
and plans of public education in this and every other State. It is a 
practical problem that ought to be solved, and solved speedily. — The 
University News Letter. 

Educating for Farm Life 

Claiiknce Poe, 

Editor The Progremrifc Farmer, Ralpigh. N. C. 

TAM glad to know that the Tuaixixc; School Quarterly is prepar- 
ing to give especial attention to teaching agriculture and country- 
life subjects in country schools. I still remember how, in the little 
country school I attended, a desk-mate came to me one day and said 
that he was not going to school any more, and when I asked bim why, 
answered that it "wasn't any use, because be was going to be a farmer." 
And there was a tragedy for you — a boy who had come to the school 
with the hope that it would give meaning and richness and color to his 
life, going back to his work hopeless of the help that should have been 
hi^, going back to work which ignorance was to make a drudgery, but 
which science and practical education should have glorified into a joyous 

Multiply this case not by thousands, but by millions and you have 
some conception of the seriousness of the problem that confronts us. 


Our whole educational .system has been made by city people for city 
people, and the country school finds it second-hand, ill-fitting, and unat- 
tractive, a half-lifeless parasite. The school has not taken hold of farm 
life. Plants, soils, animals, insects, flower.3, the weather, the forests and 
the sky — from all these things it has stood apart, while it has babbled 
of subjects unfamiliar and uninteresting to the country-bred child. All 
rural education has been hacked and hewed to fit the Procrustean bed 
of the city model. 

Several years ago I heard Dr. John Graham Brooks, of Massachusetts, 
speaking at the Southerii Educational Conference in Winston-Salem, 
declare of the average public school : 

"Its arithmetic, its geography, its penmanship, its bookkeeping, and its 
reading-book appeal to the imagination of the farmer's child are still domi- 
nated by clerk and trading point of view. As one listens to the teaching, it 
i? as if the one object were to create discontent with the country life, to 
make every bright child hate his surroundings. The instructions seems to 
assume the failure of the farm life. The inexhaustible charm and resource 
of the country have no part in this teaching." 

And this indictment is hardly too severe. Our text-books have not 
suggested to the farmer's child the possibilities of science and training 
in agricultural work. On the contrary, the natural and logical inference 

Educating for Farm Life 9 

from our geaeral scHem'e of rural instruction has been that education is 
not indispensable to the farmer, but is intended chiefly for the commer- 
cial and professional classes. In your spelling book, for instance, it has 
been easy to find commercial and city words — dividends, stocks, interest, 
accounts, percentages, balance, etc., etc., but where have you found such 
fundamental agricultural terms as nitrogen, potash, protein, or even such 
common farm words as clevis, single-tree, mattock, etc. ? In your arith- 
metic, moreover, you will find all about foreign exchange and commis- 
sions and bank discount and British money, and latitude and longitude 
and the metric system of weights and measures, but until quite recently 
never a word about how to calculate a feeding ration for cows, or a 
fertilizer formula from certain quantities of potash, phosphoric acid, 
and nitrogen, and even now such problems appear only in a "supple- 
ment," I believe. Is it not high time to say that we will, if necessary, let 
the farm boy learn less about far-away Australia and Kamchatka, but 
anyhow let him learn more about the soil that he walks over and plows 
in every day of his life ? The farmer girl, too, must learn of food values, 
of the chemistry of cooking, of hygiene, and of sanitation. Domestic 
science for the girls must go side by side with agriculture for the boys. 


ISTot only would I plead for a new viewpoint in our text-books and in 
our whole curriculum of the schools, but I believe also in teaching the 
elements of agricultural science in the rural schools. 

There is no reason either for saying that the child will not be benefited 
or that the average teacher cannot teach the book. As has been well 
said, the average teacher, if she has studied the text-book properly, 
probably knows a great deal more of the "knowable, teachable things" 
about agriculture than of the "knowable^ teachable things" about history, 
geography or physiology — subjects which she regards herself as thor- 
oughly competent to handle. 

The assumption that a woman cannot teach the elements of agricul- 
ture — not farming, mind you, hut simply the scientific truths that have 
practical application in farming — ^unless she has been a field hand is 
absurd. You don't need to be a centenarian and a soldier in order to 
teach history; it is not required that a teacher travel around the world 
before teaching geography; she need not have written a book before 
teaching grammar ; she need not have robbed graves and dissected corpses 
before teaching physiology. Why argue, then, that she must have broken 
steers and stemmed tobacco before teaching the scientific tniths about 
soil chemistry and plant physiology that have practical application in the 
business of farming? You don't have to know how to hitch a mule 
to a plow in order to teach why it doesn't pay to plow deep and cut the 
corn roots in two at laying-by time; you need not know how to run a 
guano distributor in order to teach the effects of potash, phosphoric acid, 

10 The Training School Qlaktekly 

and nitrogen in plant growth; you lU'ed not know how to cure cowpea 
hay to teach how nitrogen gathered hy the cowpeas will enrich the land ; 
you need not know how to shuck corn to teach which type of ear has 
been found to be best for corn production ; you need not even have 
milked cows in order to teach that the Babcock test will show which 
dairy cows are paying and which are not; nor need you have butchered 
steers in order to tell that with a Jersey cow and a Polled Angus, the 
Jersey is better for the dairy and the Angus for beef. 


The great need now is to develop a system of education that will carry 
inspiration and richness and color into the daily tasks of the great 
masses of our people. Nor need we be disturbed by those who say that 
in training for work and for efficiency, the schools will become less 
useful in building character or in developing genuine culture. There is 
just as much culture and character-training in learning how to calculate 
a fertilizer formula as there is in learning how to calculate latitude 
and longitude, just as much culture in learning the food values of the 
variou? vegetables as there is in learning to parse French sentences, just 
as much culture in learning how to fight the bacterial invaders of one's 
own body as in learning how some Roman emperor repelled martial 
invaders two thousand years ago. The idea that character and culture 
cannot be found in anything that has to do with sweat and homy hands, 
with the hiss of steam, the ^raoke of factories, and the smell of plowed 
ground — this is an inheritance from the dudes, fops and perfumed 
dandies of royal courts that we have no more use for in North Carolina 
than we have for powdered queues, gold snuffboxes and velvet knee- 

The trouble is, as Dr. Henry F. Cope says, that our public schools 
have been organized to get all the children ready for college, whereas 
"less than one per cent of the pupils reach college and less than three 
per cent the high school." Many a town, if it should examine the teach- 
ing in its higher grades, would discover, as did Newton, Mass., last 
year, that of every dollar expended, one-third went for foreign languages : 

For Latin 15 cents 

French 11 cents 

German G cents 

Greek 1 cent — 

33 cents in every dollar for foreign languages, while a half cent in each 
dollar went for shopwork and mechanical drawing — the only thing of 
an industrial character for boys — and less than half a cent for domestic 
science for girls. And all this, despite the fact pointed out by Dr. Cope 
that the so-called language students "only get language-drill from the 
classics; they do not get the classics; they get tedious mental gymnastics." 
And this opinion is abundantly reinforced by that eminent scholar and 

Educating for Farm Life 11 

student, Viscount Bryce, who, in his new volume_, "University and Histor- 
ical Addresses," refers to this excessive emphasis on languages and says : 

"More than a half of the boys in schools and under-graduates in colleges 
who may be taught Latin, and five-sixths of those who may be taught Greek, 
will not get far enough to enjoy the literature and give it a permanent hold 
on their minds." 

We must make over our whole educational system. Education, ac- 
cording to a fine definition I once had from Governor Mann, of Virginia, 
is "training for the mastery of environment." We must make our 
schools train for work, therefore — for constructive, productive, creative 
enterprise, without which we cannot build up a great Commonwealth 
or a great civilization; we must train for industrial mastery, and we 
must give an acquaintance with Nature and with poets and sages and 
dreamers so that one may find joy in one's physical and intellectual 

And this last sentence reminds me to say that a few days after Secre- 
tary of Agriculture Houston went into office, I called on him, and in 
discussing the needs of our rural people, he used one sentence I have 
never forgotten: "The farmer has a right to a joyous existence." 

Here was struck what was virtually a new note among agricultural 
officials of the country. Plenty of leaders have said that the farmer 
should have a more profitable industry, a more efficient business, a more 
dominant political influence; but the idea of going further and giving 
the farmer a zest and passion for country things and for the beauties of 
country life — this has not been stressed as it should be. And the re- 
sponsibility must rest in great measure upon our educators, upon those 
who shape the teaching in our country schools. 

Sometimes, when we plead for more emphasis on agriculture and 
domestic science in the schools, someone answers : "Oh, you are inter- 
ested only in peeing people make more money. You are commercial. 
You would sacrifice culture for cash !" But that is not our spirit at all. 
We are anxious not only to see these practical studies in every country 
school, but we are interested in developing a genuine rural culture — not 
a parasitic urban culture acquired for purposes of ostentation, but a 
genuine culture which will open the eyes of the rural population to the 
beauty and glory that surround them, and which will enrich life and 
groAv in strength and vitality with the passing years. Said a friend 
of mine one day : 

"I was out in the woods this morning and saw a beautifully colored bird, 
one that I had seen one or two times before during my period of memory. I 
did not know what its name was; do not know yet, although I am going to 
try to find out. To find it out I shall have to go to my bird books. I know 
no one about here who knows more about birds than I do, and my ignorance 
is a constant source of shame to myself. 

12 The Training School Qi akterly 

"I fiiul lots of llowers. too, and some trees, that I cannot place. I have 
spent a lot of time with handbooks trying to place some interesting new 
plant, and then found out later that I had placed it wrong. Most country 
people are just as Ignorant of these things as I am." 

How much better, be went on to say, would it have been if the country 
school ho attended had taught him these things instead of teaching him 
the capital of Afghanistan, the chief rivers of New Zealand, or the 
French system of weights and measures. 

And hero an experience of my own comes to mind. When I was a 
boy in the country, I came across a battered old astronomy, part of the 
leaves and all of the maps missing. Nevertheless, with the aid of the 
descriptive pictures I located constellation after constellation, fixed star 
after star, while the story of the wonders of God Almighty's universe, 
its planets and suns and systems, filled my imagination, broadened my 
vision, and stimulated my thinking as no mechanical language-drill 
could ever have done. And while I have wholly forgotten the little I 
learned of Latin and Greek, it is still a pleasure when I go out at night 
to find myself under the light of friendly stars, and to recognize the 
same ancient guardians of the sky that looked down on Job when the 
Lord answered him from the whirlwind : "Canst thou bind the sweet 
influences of the Pleiades or loose the bands of Orion? Canst thou 
bring forth Mazzaroth in his season, or canst thou guide Arcturus with 
his sons?" "When Vega, with her twin attendants, glitters above me in 
the summer evenings, or in winter red Aldebaran glows like a ruby in 
"the rainy Hyades," my soul lifts with a knowledge of their sublimity 
and of the illimitableness of the universe of which I am a part. 

Let us see to it, then, that agriculture is taught in the schools, and let 
us see to it also that unlike Markham's "Man with the Hoe," the country- 
man of the future is no longer indifferent to the beauties of nature — 
"the swing of Pleiades, the rift of dawn, the reddening of the rose." 

Rather may the time soon come when with agriculture ennobled as 
a science, enriched as a business, and beautified as a life, the typical 
farmer of the South may have indeed "a joyous existence," and echo 
the beautiful sentiment of John Burroughs: 

"I have loved to feel the grass under my feet and the running streams by 
my side. The hum of the wind in the tree tops has always been music to 
me, and the face of the fields has often comforted me more than the faces of 
men. I am in love with this world because by my constitution I have nestled 
lovingly in it. It has been home. It has been my point of lookout into the 
universe. I have not bruised myself against it, nor tried to use it ignobly. 
I have tilled the soil; I have gathered its harvests. I have waited upon its 
seasons, and have always reaped what I have sown. While I delved I did not 
lose sight of the sky overhead. While I gathered bread and meat for my 
body, I did not neglect to gather its bread and meat for my soul. I have 
climbed its mountains, roamed its forests, felt the sting of its frosts, the 
oppression of its heats, the drench of its rains, the fury of its winds, and 
always have beauty and joy waited upon my goings and comings." 

The Students' Gardens at East Carolina Teachers' Trainin(; School, 

Agriculture in the Cary Farm Life School 


C"WO years ago there were added to the Cary Public High School 
the departments of Agriculture and Home Economics. These 
two departments constitute the Cary Farm-Life School. It is the 
purpose of the school to train boys and girls to be more efficient farmers 
and home builders, to make of them better citizens and to create within 
them a love for and an understanding of the wonders of nature. 

In the past our schools have been molded to fit the ten per cent who 
intend entering the professions while the ninety per cent who remain 
in the country to dig their living from the soil have been disregarded. 
The average farmer boy knows very little about soil, plants, and animals; 
the three great sources of wealth. As he goes around the farm he sees 
nothing but unreasoning work day after day. , There is no wonder that 
so many of our boys leave the country when they have not been taught to 
know anything about the things that they have to work with. There 
must be something wrong with any educational system that does not 
provide for the training of country boys and girls for their life work. 
Our rural communities need and have a right to demand a good, practi- 
cal, scientific training in agriculture. The country boy needs and has a 
right to demand as good training for his life work as his brother who 
enters one of the professions. It was to meet this obvious need that farm- 
life schools have been established in the various counties of the State. 

In the farm-life schools the agricultural subjects are not taught to the 
exclusion of the literary subjects. The student in agriculture is not 
deprived of the literary training that is so essential to the making of a 
well-rounded man and that which will add so much to his happiness in 
after life. The only change that ha^ been' made in the old system is the 
substitution of the agricultural subjects for Latin. 

Briefly stated, the Cary Farm-Life School offers the following course 
in agriculture, along with the regular literary work : 

The work in the classroom for the first year is devoted largely to the 
study of the general principles of agriculture which serves as a founda- 
tion for the three following years. The laboratory work of this year is 
given over to manual training. In the shop the students are taught the 
use of tools and are required to construct such things a3 are needed 
around the farm and farm home. 

In the second year the students take up the study of field crops, fruit 
growing and vegetable gardening. In the subject of field crops the 
student learns the different soils, fertilizers, systems of cultivation and 
rotation that are best adapted to various crops and the varieties of these 

14 The Traixino School Quabtekly 

crops that are best suited to different soils and climates. He also re- 
ceives practical training in seed selection and seed testing. In fruit 
growing the student is taught the best location for orchards, how to set 
trees properly, budding and grafting, the proper methods of pruning and 
the best spray materials to use for the various insects and diseases. 
Instruction is also given in the grading, packing and marketing of 
fruit. The school has a young orchard on the school farm containing a 
number of varieties of peaches, apples, pears, plums, cherries and grapes. 
This orchard was set by the students and it is a part of their class work 
to prune and spray the trees. In vegetable gardening the students con- 
struct hotbed frames and sash for the starting of early plants for the 
farm garden. They begin planting seeds in the hotbed in January and 
thereby are able to start their garden six to eight weeks earlier than 
they could in the open. Each student has his individual garden on the 
school farm and is required to plan, plant, and cultivate it for himself. 
Here he becomes familiar with all the vegetables that should be grown 
on the farm. 

The third year i.s devoted to the study of live stock. Here the 
student learns the different types and breeds of farm animals and their 
characteristics. He also receives practical training in the feeding of 
farm animals, livestock judging, dairying, bi-eeding, and poultry raising. 

The fourth year is given to the study of soils, farm management and 
rural economics. Under the subject of soils the student learns the 
various soil types and their treatment, the proper laying of terraces and 
the best methods of drainage. In farm management the students are 
taught to apply business methods to farming. Rural economics is 
devoted largely to the study of how to save what is made on the farm. 
Cooperation and the problems of marketing find a prominent place in 
this course. 

In addition to the work done at the school, the teachers of agriculture 
and home economics hold demonstrations on Friday afternoons out in 
the rural communities. The work for the past year has been devoted to 
the home orchard and home garden. It has been our aim to induce the 
farmers to grow more fruit and vegetables of a superior quality and to 
show them how to care for their orchards and gardens more intelligently. 

The Gary Farm Life School is doing a great service for the boys of 
Wake County by placing within their reach a scientific and practical 
training in agriculture. The school is not satisfied to train men to 
produce more grain to the acre, or more pounds of meat from a balanced 
ration, but the students are being shown how to become leaders in their 
communities; how they may make agriculture a fine progressive art 
which in the future shall provide a more stable and satisfactory basis 
for thrifty, intelligent, refined and happy rural communities. 

Approaching Agriculture Through the 
Small Garden 

Herbert E. Austin. 

TT was the sweetest sound I ever heard!" "I never realized what 
rain meant before !" "I now know how father feels when he says, 
'The sound of that rain was like music !' " 

These were some remarks overheard in the Agriculture class one morn- 
ing in late May after a period of drought. The pupils' gardens had 
been carefully prepared. A deep personal interest in each garden had 
developed. The drought had become a personal matter. "My plants" 
were in danger. The pupils were seeing things and feeling things from 
father's viewpoint. 

To thus be brought into sympathetic and intelligent relationship with 
the problems and life of home is no small matter. It is one of the 
values resulting from the right teaching of agriculture in our elementary 
and high schools. To connect the boys and girls up with the community 
interests, bring them into sympathy with them, make them intelligent 
with reference to the problems to be solved in the every-day occupations, 
make them conscious of the laws and force of Nature which are theirs 
to use and obey if they are to succeed, is the function of elementary 

Before there is a will to do, or to question how, there must be a 
desire. Before there is the desire, there must arise in consciousness 
the feeling of personal value to the individual. The situation must 
always be real and personal. There can be no other method of suc- 
cessful approach in the teaching of agriculture in our elementary 
schools. Eight here is found the secret of the worthwhileness of the 
corn clubs, tomato clubs, poultry clubs and pig clubs in our State. The 
boy and girl are working with realities. Elementary agriculture ap- 
proached from any other point of view or method will be a failure; it 
will be bookish, dead, and tends to develop a lack of sympathy and 
appreciation for the country and farm. 

Because of our short school term and other unfavorable conditions 
existing about most of our public schools, the school garden is not prac- 
ticable. The elements of failure and disaster are present in too great 
a degree. 

The spirit of ''What's the use?" must not be permitted to even suggest 
itself. For these reasons, and to take the greatest possible advantage of 
the "my" factor, the elementary agriculture Avork should grow out of 
and be centered about some home project that is being carried out at the 
time by each member of the class at home. 

16 The Training School Quarterly 

We make the mistake of trying to cover the whole field of general 
agriculture in one term or one year. In trying to teach everything we 
usually succeed in teaching nothing. A few things well learned and 
put into practice are worth more than a whole book full not learned or 
half learned and not carried into practice. So it will be much better to 
have the work center about plants one year and animals the following 

This year a small home vegetable garden could be made to furnish the 
interest and problems with reference to plant growing. Next year 
poultry could be made the center of interest and work and through them 
the pupil made familiar with the essential principles of animal hus- 

This year at the Ti-aining School we are getting our problems in 
Agriculture from the home vegetable garden. The senior students work 
in groups of two. Small gardens ten feet by twenty feet have been laid 
out and planted by them, as shown in the pictures. The vegetables 
selected for our first planting this year and occupying the rows, begin- 
ning with the left, are one row Crimson Giant and White Icicle radishes, 
two rows Fordhook Fancy Mustard, one row May King and Early 
Curled Simpson lettuce, one row Purple Top Strop-leaved Turnips, one 
row Extra Early Purple Top Milan Turnips, one row Dark Stinson 
Beets, one row Improved Blood Beet, one row Kohl Rabi, one row onion 
sets, two rows Burpee's Stringless Green Pod Beans, one row Chalk's 
Early Jewel Tomatoes, and one row Ruby King Sweet Peppers. 

As these mature they will be rej^laced by other kinds and varieties 
best adapted to the later season, and an effort made to keep this garden 
producing something every day in the year. 

With the exception of the disking, plowing and harrowing of the 
ground before it is handed over to the students, all the work of laying 
off the gardens, preparing the soil, planting the seeds, and caring for 
the plants is done by the pupils themselves. They are held responsible 
for results. The "what" to be done is carefully explained to them. 

Their practice and rules are based upon and illustrate Knapp's Funda- 
mental Principles of Agriculture for Southern Fanners. As each ques- 
tion arises, the science fact and the laws of nature which explain the 
"why" of the thing to be done or not done is introduced and made 
realities through simple oxporiuipnts, and their vital relation to the 
problem carefully shown. 

Agriculture is nothing more than conscious and intelligent cooperation 
with nature and her forces. 

My Blue and Gold Garden 

Jaques Busbee. 

CHE spring garden is now uppermost in the thoughts of all who 
have even a square yard of earth to spade. Perhaps an account 
of how I planted a small garden only thirty feet square will be 
of interest, as I realize a greater display of flowers for house decoration 
throughout the season than my neighbors do with four times that garden 

Three points were considered : first, what colors were most harmonious 
in the house; second, what should be the arrangement and color scheme 
of the garden itself; and last, but by no means least, what would grow 
best and bloom through our long hot summer. 

My house, in general effect, is Mission, with a color scheme of cream 
walls, orange buff window shades, brown woodwork and solid green rugs. 
In each room there is just one accent of vivid blue ; in the hall a blue 
Venetian glass vase; in the library an Audubon print of blue jays; in the 
dining-room a painting of blue surf and sea, and so on. 

First of all I find that red and pink flowers are simply atrocious in 
the house, except on the dining table under artificial light. Therefore, 
only one corner of the garden is given over to red and pink roses, the 
rest of the space is filled with yellows and blues. Nearly half the garden 
is planted in the yellow composites — Gaillardias, Heleniums, Helianthus, 
Eudbeckia, Chrysanthemums, and Coreopsis. Also, I have Escholschia, 
Snapdragon, Hemerocallis, Yellow Zinnias and Marigolds and yellow 
Spanish Iris and Narcissus. This gives a succession of yellow flowers 
from earliest spring until long after frost. Narcissus bloom here in 
March, followed by Escholscias, Coreopsis, Gaillardias, Eudbeckia Eul- 
gida, Heleniums, Helianthus (perennial sunflowers). Marigolds, and 
Zinnias, the Chrysanthemums prolonging the season far into November. 

All of these yellow, bronze yellow and copper yellow flowers are 
exquisite with the various backgrounds the house affords, repeating and 
accenting the color scheme of the rooms. 

On the other hand, the blue half of the garden represents a collection 
of blue flowers collected after years of trying out the plants advertised 
by flori.sts as "Blue." Flower catalogs list as ''Blue" flowers in every 
conceivable shade of purple and even colors that any milliner would call 
magenta. True blue is the scarcest color in all nature. Yet I have over 
a dozen varieties of flowers that are very close to pure cobalt blue, and 
these flowers, when placed indoors, lend a wonderful color contrast to 
the warm soft tones of the house. 

Unfortunately our climate prevents the growing of Delphiniums, the 
most splendid of all hardy blue flowers. But I have com flowers, four 

18 TiiK Tkainincj School Quarterly 

varieties of blue salvia (Farinacea, Patens, Pitcheri, Uliginosum), 
Linum, Pliunbago, Ancliusa, Chicorcc, IpoiiKca Coerulea, Clitoria (the 
most womlcrl'iil blue of thcui all), ami wIk'u it comes to "blue" flowers 
that are violet and purple, the list suddenly swells to a goodly number — 
Platycodon, Campanula, Veronica, shrubby Clematis, Agapanthus (hardy 
with us), the beautiful perennial Scabiusa, the Kocky Mountain Aquil- 
egia, and any number of various species of Iris, ranging in color from 
the almost true blue of some of the Japanese Iris and the pale blue of 
the Pallida Dalmatica to the blue purples and deep royal purples of the 
Siberian Iris. 

Flowers which luxuriate in the moist cool Northern summer, I have 
sighed over longingly, but have wasted no time planting. Delphiniums 
are to me the unattainable. So is Lupine Polyphyllus and some of the 
Campanulas. But available species in the colors wanted are numerous 
enough to more than fill my small garden and I smile with content Avhen 
some visitor praises unconsciously my success by saying, "Coarse, com- 
mon flowers like Zinnias and Sunflowers look so different in your house. 
You arrange them so well." 

Dlt. C. O'll. J.AKilUNUllOUSE. 

Charles O'Hagan Laughinghouse 

[Pi-esident Medical Society of North Carolina | 

Mamie E. Jenkins. 

CHE highest honor the physicians of the State can bestow upon a 
fellow-physician is to make him the official head of the organiza- 
tion that binds them together in one body. The man the Medical 
Society of North Carolina chose to be their leader in the year 1916 is 
Charles O'Hagan Laughinghouse, a Greenville man, bred and born in 
the town and one of its foremost citizens. His ideal of a physician is 
not the professional man who works apart from others, isolating him- 
self and his work, practicing only for the sake of making a reputation 
for himself, but it is the physician who uses his profession as a means 
by which he can help build up his community, by bettering conditions 
in education and sanitation, by developing a higher type of man, by 
standing for higher ideals of citizenship. As a man's ideals so is the 
man, therefore. Dr. Laughinghouse is a citizen before he is a profes- 
sional man. 

He has been interested, and actively interested, in most of the public- 
spirited enterprises undertaken in his community during the past twenty 
years, whether they have been for the physical, the educational, or the 
industrial betterment of the town and county. 

He is one of the busiest men in the State. His regular day begins at 
seven o'clock in the morning and runs to one o'clock the next morning ; 
how long his irregular working day continues no one dares to guess. 

Genial, popular, big in body and heart, he moves swiftly from case 
to case, or from problem to problem, with an easy, unhurried air that 
gives an impression of reserve force. He is a man one would pick in 
a crowd because of his fine physique. 

He has a record that is already worthy to be placed by that of his 
illustrious grandfather, Dr. Charles O'Hagan. The mantle of the 
grandfather has truly fallen on the grandson. Dr. O'Hagan was once 
president of the Medical Society of North Carolina. For half a century 
he was identified with practically every enterprise in the town. It is 
easy to see where Dr. Laughinghouse got his ideal of a physician, for 
the grandfather was the living embodiment of that ideal. 

Dr. Laughinghouse returned . to his home town in 1893, with his 
diploma in medicine, after having spent three years at the University of 
Pennsylvania, and entered into partnership with his grandfather, in the 
meantime having stood the State examination and having received his 
license to practice medicine. There was no period of starvation, no 
waiting for the first patient, and no time had to be spent in gaining the 
confidence of the people. It was sufficient for the public to know that 

20 The Training School Quarterly 

Dr. O'Hagan considered his young grandson worthy of sharing his work. 
Seven years of partnership with an experienced i)hysician was excellent 
apprenticeship for the young physician. Professionally he used the time 
to good advantage, not depending on the grandfather's reputation to 
carry him through. He realized that the time would come when he 
would have to carry on the practice alone. When the older man passed 
out, the work went on. 

For a few years Dr. Laughinghouse was in partnership with Dr. Moye, 
but the failing health of Dr. Moye required him to give up his practice, 
so the partnership was dissolved. Since then Dr. Laughinghouse has 
practiced alone. 

Dr. Laughinghouse has held many offices, and they have been not 
empty offices of honor, but those that have required work and special 
intellectual qualifications. In 1895, only two years after he was admitted 
to the profession in ISTorth Carolina, he was made essayist of the Medical 
Society. In 1896 he was made chairman of the section on surgery and 
anatomy in the same organization. In 1902, less than ten years after 
he bega7i practicing medicine, he was made a member of the State 
Board of examiners. He served on this board for six years, and was 
president for the last two years of this time. 

He has been a member of the State Board of Health since 1910. In 
1902 he delivered an address before the Medical Society on "One of the 
State's Immediate Needs — Shown by Legislative History." This was 
printed and circulated throughout the State. Reprints of this were 
made later and copies are still in circulation. This set forth the needs 
for increased appropriations for the Department of Health. It was one 
of the important factors that aroused the legislators to a realization of 
the importance of this department. The appropriations have been 
greatly increased from time to time until this department has grown to 
be one of the most extensive and efficient departments in the State. 
At the time Dr. Laughinghouse wrote this article he was chairman of 
the section on "Medical Jurisprudence and State Legislation." 

He delivered the address at the laying of the cornerstone of Caswell 
Training School, the school for the feeble-minded, setting forth the 
purpose, the prospects, and the future of the institution. It was printed 
and scattered throughout the State; later reprints were sent out into 
other States, and dozens of invitations have come to him to address 
Legislatures, and various bodies which were interested, or which zealous 
advocates wished to interest, in the cause of the feeble-minded. 

On the grave-stone of one of the Laughinghouse forefathers at Bath is 
the inscription, "A revolutionary soldier who carried to his grave scars 
received while fighting for the independence of our country. He lived 
and died an honest man." This explains where Dr. Laughinghouse got 
his fighting qualities. He has been in many interesting fights. Perhaps 
he has achieved more fame because of his part in the campaign against 

Charles O'Hagan Laugiiinqhouse 21 

tuberculosis tlian he has" in any other cause. He wrote an article, "Diag- 
nosis of Incipient Tuberculosis from the General Practitioner's Stand- 
point," which has been widely circulated. This is considered one of the 
most valuable contributions made to the cause by a general practitioner. 

Some years ago smallpox was raging everywhere in this section of 
the State. People were still doubting the efficacy of vaccination. One 
family in Pitt County had six cases of the disease, but this was the 
first outbreak of it in the county. Dr. Laugh in ghouse, determined to 
keep ahead of the disease, started out on a vaccinating campaign; for 
six weeks he went day and night, vaccinating throughout the county 
as he went. The smallpox excitement in Pitt County ended where it 
began, with those first six cases, and the surrounding counties had ap- 
palling records. 

He was instrumental in getting a bill passed by the State Legislature 
allowing towns and counties to build community hospitals. He made a 
survey of the poorhouses of the first congressional district, which con- 
vinced him that there was great waste in having a separate poorhouse 
for each county. He succeeded in convincing the Legislature of the 
same thing, and they passed a bill permitting the first district to have 
a community poorhouse, to take care of all the paupers of all the counties 
in the district. This has not, however, been built. 

Dr. Laughinghouse has been the official school physician of East 
Carolina Teachers Training School ever since its opening. The health 
record of the school has been well nigh marvelous. In the seven years 
there has never been a single death among students or faculty. There 
has never been an epidemic of any kind. All sorts and kinds of diseases 
have crept in, one at the time, but they have a way of coming at the end 
of vacations or week-end trips, souvenirs the students bring back from 
other places. Among these have been all the simple contagious diseases 
that everyone seems destined to have — measles, mumps, scarlet fever, 
whooping cough, chicken pox, and, in addition, smallpox (just one very 
light case) — yet not a single one of these has gone any further than the 
case with which it began. The infirmary at the Training School, with 
its excellent contagious ward, makes it possible to isolate completely any 
suspected cases. 

The preventive measures Dr. Laughinghouse has taken against diseases, 
and the corrective treatment for chronic troubles have been of untold 
value to the school. Many individual girls have been saved from future 

The first year of the school, soon after the opening, Dr. Stiles visited 
the school and gave the tests for hook-worm. New students have always 
been carefully watched for this disease. 

In November, 1913, Dr. Von Erzdorf, the great specialist in malaria, 
visited the school and gave the tests which proved satisfactorily and 
convincingly that there was much less malaria in the eastern part of the 

22 The Training School Quarterly 

State than was usually believed. Dr. Laughinghouse thought that the 
school was the best place in which to make a systematic study of condi- 
tions because the students came from practically every county in the 
easteni section of the State, and the time that was best for the test was 
soon after they came from their homes in the fall. Every fall tests are 
given all of the students that have symptoms that indicate malaria and 
treatment follows when necessary. The result is that there is approxi- 
mately no malaria in the school. 

Each year, whenever there are rumors of smallpox in the air, there is 
a wholesale vaccination of all the new students that have not been vacci- 
nated in some time. While this is not compulsory the question is simply 
laid before the students and there is rarely ever a student that does not 
wish to be vaccinated. 

For two years, in the early fall, the problem of typhoid fever preven- 
tion has been stated to the girls, and they are given the opportunity to 
take the treatment for prevention. Practically every student has taken 
advantage of this opportunity. 

"Whenever a student has trouble requiring the attention of a specialist 
she is advised to consult one. The students are thoroughly examined and 
are kept in remarkably good physical condition. The improvement 
caused by regular habits and close supervision over their health is 
plainly in evidence as the year goes by; even the casual observer notices 
the improved physical condition of the students taken as a whole. 

Dr. Laughinghouse advocates the same preventive measures in regard 
to health in the community, both town and county, that he does in the 
school. He never loses an opportunity to inform the people along the 
lines of health. One evidence of this is that the people of Pitt County 
look on the typhoid treatment as a necessity. 

He dreamed of the time when Pitt County should have a whole-time 
health officer. He served for years as health officer and gave such 
service as conditions would permit. This made him realize that condi- 
tions should be bettered, that there should be health inspection in the 
schools, and that all of the many things that should be done could be 
done only by a man who had all of his time to give to the work. In the 
winter of 1915 a peculiar combination of circumstances made him feel 
that the psychological moment had arrived for the matter to be pressed 
home. The board of county commissioners was appealed to and the result 
was that the State Board of Health was authorized to find a man quali- 
fied for the place. The interests of Dr. Laughinghouse reach out beyond 
his profession. As was said in the beginning, he is a citizen first of all. 
His fighting powers have been used for the educational development of 
the town. He was one of the first to advocate bonds for the purpose of 
building a graded school. He canvassed the county from one end to the 
other when the question of the bond issue for the East Carolina Teachers 
Training School was the paramount issue before the people. 

Charles O'Hagan Laughinghouse 23 

He was also one of- the fir.3t to agitate the bond issue for good roads. 
This was finally carried after an intensely interesting campaign. The 
industrial and commercial life of the town he has not only watched with 
great concern, but taken a hand and helped substantially many times. 
He was one of the original stockholders applying for a charter of the 
Greenville Knitting Mill, the Greenville Manufacturing Company, and 
the Greenville Building and Loan Association. He was one of the first 
to take stock in and help organize both the National Bank of Greenville 
and the Greenville Banking and Trust Company. He is now a director 
of the latter. Dr. Laughinghouse, with Higgs Brothers and D. W. 
Hardy, built the modern four-story office building in the heart of the 
town, known as the "National Bank Building." 

The Public Library of Greenville has rooms in this building which 
the owners are furnishing free of rent for one year. 

The name of Dr. Laughinghouse is among the charter members of the 
Carolina Club. He is now one of the directors of this club, and has 
been active in its development, helping to make it a real factor in the 
progress of the town. 

This man whom the doctors of JSTorth Carolina have chosen to honor is, 
on one side, descended from the pure old English stock that settled this 
eastern section of North Carolina. His forefathers over two hundred 
years ago settled at Bath, the oldest town in North Carolina, and helped 
build the most famous church in North Carolina, which is still standing. 
Without a break his LaiTghinghouse grandfathers have been landowners, 
and were slaveholders. A generation or two ago this immediate branch 
of the family moved into another part of Beaufort County, in the 
Chocowinity Township. The father of Dr. Laughinghouse, J. J. Laugh- 
inghouse, has been a prominent citizen of Greenville for many years. 

The mother of Dr. Laughinghouse was Miss Eliza O'Hagan, who was 
the daughter of Dr. Charles O'Hagan, for whom he was named. Dr. 
O'Hagan was born in Ireland, was educated in Belfast and lived 
there until after he was grown. He had a position in the Queen's survey 
and went throughout Ireland, Scotland, and England while in this work. 
He came to this country to teach, and because a college mate had told 
him that the South was a great place for school teachers he came South. 
He taught in Hookerton and Kinston before coming to Greenville, Avhere 
he finally settled. After teaching a while he read medicine and began 
practicing. He came to Greenville in 1850 and died in 1900. 

Dr. Laughinghouse was born in 1871. He attended Trinity High 
School, at Chocowinity, for some years, where he was under one of 
the most famous teachers of this section, Eev. Collin Hughes, D.D. 
He attended Horner School, at Oxford, for two years. He was a student 
in the University of North Carolina one year. The secondary schools 
then did not stop when a boy Avas prepared for college; therefore, when 
Dr. Laughinghouse entered the University he found his work scattered 


The Training School Quarterly 

from Freshman through the Junior class. One of the things for which 
the University has to thank him for is his part iu the organization of 
the first glee cluh ever organized there. He and Messrs. Hunter Harris, 
George Butler, T. M. Lee, and Stephen Bragaw, were the first members. 
He left the University of North Carolina to attend the University of 
Pennsylvania. While there he was president of the John S. Ashurst 
Surgical Society. He received his medical degree in the year 1893. 
He took three months post graduate work at Johns Hopkins University 
in 1896. 

He was married to Miss Carrie Dail, of Snow Hill, on the tenth of 
June, 1896. They have three children, Helen, who is now seventeen 
years old, and is a student at St. Mary's School, in Raleigh ; Charles, 
sixteen years old, who is in the high school in Greenville, and Dail, 
fourteen years old, who is in the Greenville Graded School. 

In polities Dr. Laughinghouse is a Democrat. He sometimes says 
that when it comes to local politics he must be a mug^vump, for he 
always wants to see elected the man, regardless of the party to which he 
belongs, who will do most to better conditions in education and sanita- 
tion, the man Avho in every way will mean most to the community. 

Thus one can readily see that the man who has achieved so much for 
his community in a lifetime of forty-five years has merited the confi- 
dence of his professional coworkers. 

T. S 

Gathering Up the Fragments 

[Address delivered during the Better Babies Week in Greenville.] 

Charles O'Hagan Laughinghouse. 

DID you ever stop to think that progress comes through men? That 
lawyers are men and that all laws are made hy men? That all 
priests and preacher^ are men? That all religions were formu- 
lated by men ? That all books were written by men ? That all the justice 
we know is man's justice ? That the justice and mercy of God himself is 
man's conception of that justice and mercy, and that it changes as man 
changes? All love is man's love? All sympathy man's sympathy? All 
service man's service? All progress man's progress? There is nothing 
greater, grander, finer or nobler in this world than man. He is king of the 
world. God has made him so. Babies and children are men and women 
in the bud. Realizing this, we have Better Babies Week to gather up 
the fragments of child life so that nothing be lost in the making of men 
and women. 

In a material way we bend our energies to gathering up the fragments. 
For instance, in the past we made laws prohibiting the dumping of 
cotton seed into navigable streams. We are taking the seed, today, and 
using them to our profit. Hogs and cows do not grow on cotton stalks, 
nor do cotton blooms develop into olives. From cotton seed we get lard 
manufactured in Chicago, butter in Montana, and olive oil pressed in 
sunny Italy. 

Petroleum, lately a waste product, gives us, today, everything from 
axle grease to gasoline. The Standard Oil Company is giving due atten- 
tion to gathering up the fragments, and out of this they have gotten rich 
from the waste of a few years ago. 

Armour has applied this principle of the whole hog or none, and 
sells at a profit everything from ham down to the extract of the supra- 
renal gland. 

The modern saw mill uses its sawdust for fuel and modern invention 
is even converting sawdust into grain alcohol. 

The slow and wasteful methods of by-gone days are considered impos- 
sible and foolish to the farmer who is using chemistry and modern 
machinery mixed with brains, to furnish food for the world. 

The stagecoach is a memory. Railroads are everywhere, and the 
wastefulness of bad country roads is preached at every turn. 

We are reclaiming waste lands by drainage, by irrigation we are 
forcing the deserts to blossom like the rose, and the telephone and tele- 
graph has put the face of the earth on every man's desk. 

In a social way we are gathering up the fragments. The State exists 

26 The Training School Quarterly 

for tlie individual, and the highest purpose of Better Babies Week is to 
fit the individual to exist and be fitted to exist for the State. 

The State compels for the preser\'ation of order and taxes for the 
public service. It fines and imprisons for crime, and for the sake of 
society it sometimes takes away all rights, even the right to live, when the 
individual so misuses his rights tluit his death, better than his life, pro- 
serves society. 

As civilization advances we are denying and voting down the doctrine 
of individual rights. We have long since learned that social safety 
depends upon this denial. 

We have come to know that the best government is that government 
which is detennined by the question of the greatest good to the greatest 

In fact, government today is an unconditional denial of individual 
rights to the extent, at least, of wiping out the duties to the individual 
except in so far as they appertain to the public good. 

Compulsory vaccination, while primarily for the individual, would not 
be laAv today except that in this way, and in this way only, can the State 
be protected against smallpox. 

A dairyman's coavs are his own, but in civilized communities he is not 
permitted to sell infected milk to endanger the health and life of his 
neighbor's children. 

A butcher's meat is his own, but in municipalities that are intelligently 
governed it cannot be placed on the market for human food if it is 
diseased, or unsafe or unfit to eat. 

A manufacturer's money is his own, but in civilized countries he is not 
permitted to use it for the purchase of the cheaper labor of the unde- 
veloped child, even though the child's parents are willing to sell. 

A man's child is his own, but in civilized countries he cannot waste 
its growth and health and life in hazardous and unhealthful labors. 

So it is that a man cannot waste his own child, or his neighbor's child, 
nor claim any right or power or property that hurts or hinders the 
aggregate development and safety of his community. 

On every hand, out of the mouths of frauds, ignorance, and politicians 
we hear enough of the rights of man. Let's hear more of their duties. 

To love our neighbor as ourself is but to see ourself in our neighbor, 
and to find our safety everlastingly involved in his welfare. From rights, 
then, to duties should be our slogan for Better Babies Week and for all 
time, for so leads the way to gathering up the fragments that bring per- 
manent wealth and permanent happiness. 

The fraternal orders, churches, and private citizens are furnishing 
and maintaining orphanages, not as mere charities or matters of senti- 
ment only. These places make men and Avomen. They make them, alas, 
far better than the average home. The deaf and dumb and blind are 

Gathering Up the Fragments 27 

being taught to become self-sustaining members of society. The insane 
and epileptic are, in many cases, being restored to useful and happy 

We are operating reformatories for young criminals, with the hope of 
educating criminal tendencies out of childhood. 

North Carolina has taken the lead in the South by establishing a 
Training School for the Feeble-Minded right here at our doors. 

We have come at last to the wonderful lighthouse of compulsory 

Think for a moment of the stupendous waste in an untrained, unedu- 
cated child. We are gathering up the fragments and preventing this as 
best we can by our public and graded schools, our colleges an^ universi- 
ties, our A. and M. College, our State ISFormal, and our East Carolina 
Teachers Training School. 

The medical inspection of school children is here and our efficient 
whole-time health officer in Pitt County is today rendering a service 
that money cannot measure. He is the constant teacher of child sanita- 
tion and hygiene. He is the guardian of the public's physical good. 
He is the Apostle of the Gospel, the teachings of which prevent physical, 
mental, and moral decay. He urges all men, and shows them how, to 
fortify the citizenship of this great country against disease and death. 
He is pressing the country's medical profession to the use of means other 
than drugs and lance with which to fight disease, and he is bringing this 
profession so fully to the comprehension of its individual and collective 
duty to public health that, forgetting things that are behind, the mem- 
bers of this profession are pressing forward on the stepping stones of 
their better selves to a finer conscience and the fulfillment of higher 

We would have you know that the world is growing better, but from 
wild grapes to grapes is a long, long journey. We may be on the Appian 
way, but we are not yet in Rome. With all our knowledge of men and 
things, with all our saving of waste through chemistry and business 
economy, with all our reclaiming of waste lands by drainage and irriga- 
tion we are failing, right here in Greenville, in giving the child its due 
in the material improvement and conservation that we are giving seed 
and hogs and land. 

We are neglecting playgrounds for our children, large and small. We 
are not giving them the advantage of scientific light and ventilation in 
our schools. Open air schools are replacing the old-time badly lighted, 
badly ventilated school. Do we give any attention to these things? Is 
there any suggestion of it in our new High School ? 

The United States, the State of iN'orth Carolina, and the county of 
Pitt, through its whole-time health officer, have told you, through the 
public press, through mass meetings, through addresses to your city 
fathers, that the big ditch just south of your Graded School is infected 

28 The Tkaixino School Quarterly 

with malaria aud is a menace not only to your school children but to 
your city's citizenship. Where have you placed your High School? 
This ditch just south of your Graded School is just east of your High 
School, and running through a large residential section of our city, is 
opening its sides every spring to the growth of mosquitoes, enough to 
make your body of school children rotten with malaria. 

Your school superintendent will tell you that you lose more days by 
sickness from malaria among school children than from all things else 
combined. It is making a waste of your school money by making a 
sickly and an inefficient student body. Is it possible that you have eyes 
that see not and ears that hear not the things that have been told you by 
the United States Public Health Service, by the State Public Health 
Seiwice, and by your local Public Health Service, and by the physicians 
of your town? If it was making your chickens and horses and cows sick 
you'd stop it. 

You advocated one or two or three thousand dollars reward for the 
capture of Dave Evans, and thought it money well spent, and it was, 
perhaps. But that ditch, and the others in Greenville like it, will do 
more harm to Pitt County's citizenship in the year of our Lord 1916 
than Dave Evans did or would have done, if he had killed two more men, 
I care not how good they are. 

O, the waste of life in its prime ! The slaughter of innocents in their 
mother's arms ! The untimely tears of broken, hopeless health and 
anxious hearts ! You can see the scars if you will visit your school and 
look upon your puny, pallid children. And you can count the scars if 
you will visit your cemetery which has made prematurely sad and 
sorrowful the beautiful face of Mother Earth. 

I told you in the beginning that my purpose was to plead that you 
gather up the fragments of child hygiene not of the body alone, but of 
the mind, morals, and environment. This brings me to the asking of a 
question concerning which all thoughtful men would enquire, and that is, 
"Are we building character in our children ?" 

Are we bending our children to the making of men and women as our 
forefathers did in former days? If not, we are raising luscious fruit 
that Avill neither keep nor nourish the world through the cold seasons 
that are to come. Are we putting a deep and enduring respect for law 
into our children's hearts? Are Ave inculcating them with the old-time 
regard for higher things? Are we saturating them with a reverence 
for God and State? By permitting them constantly to assert their 
individual right are we not putting them in the way of the prodigal 
son who spent his substance in riotous living and finally filled himself 
with the husks which the swine did eat ? 

If my son have no respect for my authority and the authority of the 
State ; if he reverence not God, and holy things ; if he have not faith and 
hope and love, and the desire for service abiding in him ; if he have not 
respect for others and respect for himself; if he have not character; 

Gathering Up the Fragments 29 

no wealth, or knowledge, or training of his can show me that he is not a 
dangerous derelict without anchor, and I shall know that he will bow or 
break his father. If there be a lacking in moral fiber, if there be 
political graft in high places and low, if there be decadence of any kind, 
know you that these things originate largely from one common source; 
the source that needs to gather up the fragments more than any other 
source, the source that is the most baneful example of the assertion of 
private rights with the negation of duties, the most appalling source of 
social waste. I refer to the increasing laxity of family government. 

It used to be said that the parent controlled the child. Now it is 
commonly admitted that the child controls the parent. That the parent 
does not control is too grievously true. Parental authority in no sense 
depends upon the consent of the governed. It is inherent ; it is the one 
great duty which the parent has no right to disregard, for in doing so he 
is a culprit to himself, to his child, to his State, and to his God. 

The family is the indispensable social unit. Its purpose is the train- 
ing of children to orderly life and citizenship, and more and more the 
family is failing in its purpose. I must train my child in the way he 
should go for the child's sake and for society's sake. It is not a work 
which I have a right to do or not to do. It is my inalienable duty. I 
may not relinquish my work any more than the Creator of all things may 
abdicate His throne, for only in this way can the doing of judgment 
and justice come among men. The Puritan may have been unduly 
austere, but the Puritans made men and women. 

Patriot and demagogue rant about the rights of local self-government. 
Let them descant less upon the beauties of it to the multitude, but, as 
fathers and mothers, let them teach it to their children. Teach them 
obedience to constituted authority and obedience to self. For "He that 
ruleth his spirit is better than he who taketh a city." So may crime be 
lessened. So may juries look up to God and care well for the State. 
So will the company of insane grow less and the number of hysterical 
women and psychasthenic men become decreased. 

In the building of character the right attitude of the soul of man is the 
work of early years. IsTothing can take the place of the family. The 
schools are supplementary. And I pray you, O Schoolmaster, teach my 
child obedience and books, if you can — but if you can teach him no 
books, teach him obedience to you and control of himself. Teach him 
this form of local self-government, this most vital embryonic form of 

Therefore, my friends, those heads of Greenville families, fathers and 
mothers, who shall resume their rightful sway in legislating for child 
welfare and health, who shall discharge to themselves, their children, 
their State and to their God their full duty as parents, will have gathered 
up the fragments of all fragments, and will have done their duty at the 
source. And they, above all others, will have gained the true, the full, 
the God-like meaning of Better Babies Week. 

The Celebration of the Tercentenary of Shakespeare 

Co-operation in School Dramatics 
AxiCE Hkkuinu, '16. 

CUE Shakespeare tercentenary was celebrated at the Training 
School by a production of "A Midsummer Night's Dream," 
given by the Senior class. 

The class, in considering during their Junior year what to give, de- 
cided that a Shakespearean play would be the most appropriate and 
desirable type to give as the tercentenary fell this year. As a result, 
"A Midsummer Night's Dream" was selected. 

It was an undertaking Avhich required much planning to find out and 
decide of what the play, as a whole, should consist. These things had to 
be decided before practices might be begun : what version of the play to 
use; what choruses, if any; the kind of dances and how they might be 
worked out; Avhether an out-door performance should be given; and 
where should the costumes come from. 

When the time came for actual work on the play the problem of choos- 
ing the cast was of paramount importance. As it was impossible for 
every one to have an important part in the cast, and as there was much 
good material from which to choose, it was a problem which required 
both tact and good judgment. Finally the suggestion of having ''try 
outs" met with the approval of all, and a week was immediately set 
aside, during which they were to be held. As an aid to the girls in 
deciding what part they would try for a committee appointed or sug- 
gested several girls to try out for each part; each girl, however, Avas 
perfectly free to try for any part she might wish. The teachers of 
English and Singing, with the class adviser, Avere judges, and they chose 
those whom they considered most capable and best suited in appearance 
for the various parts. In this manner the best material in the class 
was given an opportunity of making the play a success. 

At first the practice was carried on in sections, the different scenes 
fitting into a schedule, thus interfering practically none with the regular 
work. In this manner the practices were carried on until Avithin about 
two weeks of the date, when everything was put together and the full 
rehearsals begun. In the meantime the class adviser, wdio coached the 
play, gave individual attention to members of the cast as it was needed. 
And in all the characters there was a marked growth in understanding 
and interpretation as the rehearsals progressed and they studied their 
parts with this ideal ever before them: "Above all, be natural, but not 
yourself. In this play you are another person, he that person in thought, 
word, find action." 

Scenes and Chakacters from "A Miusvmjier Night's Dream." 

Scenes froji "A Mii)Sum:mer Nuiin's Dueam. 

Shakespeare Teecentenaby Celebration 31 

Altbougli every member of the class was not in the actual performance, 
every one had an important part, and felt the responsibility of making 
the play a success as partly hers. The realization of this responsibility 
enabled them to carry on the play successfully. 

The fairy parts of the play were taken by children from the four grades 
of the Model School, as each successive group of student teachers feel 
that the Model School belongs to them. The dances were interpreted 
from written instructions and taught these children by seniors, with the 
later approval and polishing over by a specialist in such dances. This 
specialist concentrated most of her attention on the solo dances. Never- 
theless, the actual work and the practical value of experience in the 
interpretation of the dances and the handling of young children came 
to the girls. 

The time and effort taken from the regular classwork and given to the 
play is considered well spent and of great practical and educational value 
to all who had any part in the production. The students in the work 
on "A Midsummer Night's Dream" demonstrated the value of amateur 
dramatics in connection with the departments of school work. A work 
sufficient unto itself has little value in a Normal School where the pro- 
fessional course must be completed in two years. 

The following departments were used to great advantage: Music, 
Domestic Art, Drawing, English, Mathematics, and History. Before the 
completion of the play, many opportunities were given the students 
for originality, perseverance, and exercise of creative powers. 

To show just how vitally and to what extent these various depart- 
ments were used in the planning and production of the play may be of 
value to others interested in amateur dramatics. 


The three forms of music taught here were utilized in rendering the 
music required by the play. Especially good training was given in the 
choral work and solo singing. Mendelssohn's music written for the 
play was used exclusively, with the exception of that for the tree-hearts' 
dance. And all the dances and incantations were adapted to this par- 
ticular music. 

Domestic Arts. 

For weeks the sewing-room was in great demand from morning until 
night. There, with the invaluable help and suggestions of the sewing 
teacher, the costumes for all fairies, tree hearts, and for a few minor 
characters were planned and made. With these exceptions the cos- 
tumes were rented from a professional costumer. Those working in this 
department had to depend and trust largely to their own capability and 
resourcefulness, for instance, when it was impossible to get the desired 

32 TitE Trainix(j School Qlautekly 

color for a certain costume, material was bought and dyed. Similar 
instances of ingenuity were shown again and again. 


In this department every member of the class had valuable practical 
lessons in poster-making, which included enlarging by a scale, lettering, 
use of water-colors, and combination of colors. Under the supervision of 
the drawing teacher every girl was responsible for one poster. This 
responsibility was not imposed upon the girls, but was a unanimous de- 
cision, as the girls considered it the best way to get the desired number 
of posters. Being responsible for it did not necessarily mean that each 
individual had to make an entire poster alone, but that she was only 
held responsible for the production of one. There were combinations 
of services and talents; for instance, a girl very efficient in lettering 
might do that part on several posters while another equally talented in 
sketching or using the brush might spend her time in doing work of 
that kind,; thereby gaining more satisfactory results. 

The character of the posters aimed to bring out >^e characteristic, 
fairy-like phase of the play. Among material used as foundation were 
sketches from the Ben Greet edition of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" 
and the beautiful paintings from the scenes of the play by Arthur Rack- 

For selling the tickets a diagram of the first floor had to be drawn. 
This afforded lessons in exactness and accuracy in drawing to a scale. 

These posters were sent to nearby towns and distributed about Green- 
ville as advertisements. Throughout all the advertising the merchants 
of Greenville were very accommodating, and especially was their kind- 
ness in allowing posters to be put in their windows appreciated. But 
for them the advertising might have proved much more difficult. 


All advertising, wording of handbills and programs was accomplished 
under the supervision of this department. The girl who was the school 
reporter for the town daily paper was the chairman of this committee. 

The play was kept continually before the eye of the public by articles 
appearing in the local paper. The notices were not long and were 
carefully placed in the paper. After a general introduction, only one 
feature of the play was entered each day, but by the time the play ap- 
peared the public had been informed of every feature and all credits 
had been given. One day a synopsis of the play was published to give 
people an opportunity to renew their acquaintance with the play with- 
out much effort. This was not only for the purpose of getting people 
to come, but to prepare those who were coming to look for certain fea- 
tures and enjoy the performance all the more. Wliilc much of this was 











APRIL 10 8:30 RM. ADMIS5I0M .75-100 




8:30 P.M. 



A niDsunriER 



APRIL 10 B:30PM. A0Iil5S10ri .75-L0O| 


Pen Sketches of Posters of the Senior Plat. 

34 The Traimno School Quarterly 

considered advertising and consequently had to be paid for, the material 
was judiciously handled and the committee believed it obtained maxi- 
mum results for minimum cost. The day after the performance a two- 
column write-up was sent by the school reporter at the request of the 
editors of the paper. 

Handbills were valuable in advertising the play. They were mailed 
by students to friends, relatives and parents, and it was seen that all 
cross-roads stores and villages within a radius of thirty miles was sup- 
plied with plenty of handbills. The advertising committee was ever 
alert, and the handbills were used by them very advantageously. At 
the Eastern High School Meet held in Greenville these bills were 
generously distributed. Again, the business people of Greenville showed 
their interest in the Training School by keeping handbills in their stores 
and distributing them to their customers. 

The Motion Picture Theater was also used as an aid in advertising. 
A group of girls took a special lesson from the manager of the theater 
in how to make advertising slides. These he allowed to be run every 
night for a week, free of charge; again, this showed the hearty support 
received from the citizens of the town. The girls made several slides, 
themselves, illustrating striking features of the play. 


It took no little mathematical ability to finance the play economically. 
Committees were appointed who, with the help of one of the teachers 
of the department, faithfully schemed to use the money to the best ad- 
vantage. Mathematics was especially needed in selling tickets both 
for general admission and reserved seats. 


This department proved to be very valuable to the girls in looking up 
the old Greek customs, manners, and methods of living. It also helped 
them in interpreting some scenes of the play and helped make them 
more I'eal. 

From the above one can readily see that dramatics may be made a 
vital and beneficial part of regular school work. 

Plans for Planting the Campus 

When tlie school was established the grounds were well plotted and 
paid for and definite beds were arranged and every plant to be planted 
in these beds was designated, most of which were better suited to a more 
severe climate. 

One class planted two beds according to plans. The plants did not 
seem to thrive, so the beds were not especially successful. It was the 
dream of some to see the campus planted with Southern plants and 
shrubs which are adapted to this particular climate. There is a wealth 
of material and it seemed a pity to nurse scrubby firs when we could 
just as easily have magnificent magnolias. 

In the meantime the classes and societies were gradually getting in- 
terested in the planting and the small flower-beds were evidences of 
this interest. This desultory planting served the purpose of further 
interesting the girls in beautifying the campus. Their interest con- 
tinued to grow until it reached its climax this spring, when the societies 
assumed the entire financial responsibility for planting the front cam- 

Mr, Busbee's talk on native plants and shrubs, more than two years 
ago, perhaps first aroused interest in this object. When the two socie- 
ties began to look around for a man who would plan for Southern plants, 
the one man whom they thought qualified was Mr. Jaques Busbee of 

ISTegotiations were begun with Mr. Busbee last spring. In the sum- 
mer he drew plans which were presented to the societies after the school 
opened in the fall. Then the plans were referred to President Wright 
and were left in his hands until the Board should meet. At the Janu- 
ary meeting the Board decided to substitute these for the original plans. 
Mr. Busbee heartily approved of the general plotting of the grounds and 
did not change the location of beds, but substituted plants which are 
suited to this climate. 

At a joint meeting of the two societies on March 11, 1916, Mr. Busbee 
explained the plans and told exactly what he wished to do. At this time 
he spent two days in Greenville, and on March 13th met with the inter- 
Society Committee and placed a definite proposition before them. This 
was put before the two societies simultaneously and was accepted by 
each. Mr. Busbee ordered such plants as could be planted this spring. 
When they arrived he came and did the first planting. 

In a few years the Training School will have a typical Southern 
garden which people will come from far and near to see. 

Lola T. BRiNsojf, President Poe Society. 
Eunice Yause, President Lanier Society. 

36 The Training School Quaetebly 

The plans are printed below that all the world may sec what the 
campus of East Carolina Training School will be in the years to come. 

Plans for Planting Grounds of East Carolina Teachers 
Training School 

In presenting these plans for planting the grounds of the Training 
School, two ideals have been firmly adhered to: fir^t of all, the color 
effect; and, secondly, selecting those varieties characteristic of Southern 
gardens and suited to the climate of Greenville. 

The color effect of the buildings standing against a background of 
green, is startling ! The walls and roofs are red with white and a touch 
of yellow. Therefore a prime necessity is to carry those colors out into 
the surrounding shrubbery and trees, so that the buildings may be tied 
down to their setting — forced to harmonize and blend with their environ- 

I have approached this problem as an artist rather than as a landscape 
gardener or botanist. Unfortunately there are very few available shrubs 
and trees with red or scarlet flowers, though quite a number with pink 
or purple-red flowers ; therefore, I have taken the few hardy shrubs with 
vermillion-rerl flowers and used them in mass, also, with a vieAv to their 
flowering period. 

The very first breath of spring wall throw into bloom the red Japanese 
quince (Cydonia) hedge across the front and the other scattered groups 
of Cydonia, and at the same time the spireas and exochordas in white. 
About the same time the yellow Forsythia will add a touch of gold. 

For a long period in April, May, and June the red pomegranate bushes 
will repeat the red of the buildings, and throughout the summer the red 
perennial salvia Greggi will keep up the color. In the fall, wild sumach 
and sourwood trees will give brilliant spots of red in their autumn foliage 
and through the winter the berries of holly, yeopon and deciduous holly 
will give some warmth to the groupings. 

At the same period of flowering with the pomegranate, white crepe 
myrtle and Japanese privets will bloom. These are only the salient 
features. It is unnecessary to enumerate in detail. 

I have entirely avoided all pink flowers except in the mass planting of 
Camelia Japonica across the front of the buildings. A large proportion 
of Camelias are red and white; however, I would strongly recommend 
these beautiful shrubs. They will grow well in shade, are highly orna- 
mental through the winter with their dark glossy green foliage, and are 
always intimately associated with Southern gardens. A fine collection 
of these wonderful shrubs would be a decided asset for the school. They 
would attract widespread attention. Thousands of visitors go each 
spring to see the "Magnolia Gardens" near Charleston, where the col- 
lection of Indian Azaleas is a sight worth the trip. 

Plans fob Planting the Campus 37 

Handsome varieties of Camelia Japonica are rather high-priced (about 
$1 apiece), but the collection could be added to from year to year, say by 
gifts from graduating classes. 

The buildings and driveways of the Training School are laid out in a 
formal, balanced manner. I have made the main approach extremely 
formal with magnolias and tall shaft-like cedars lining the walks. Out 
on either side of the main entrance is placed a specimen sycamore tree. 
This is done for two reasons: one, because the tree is a rapid and very 
symmetrical grower ; and the other, because the color effect is particularly 
desirable — the yellow-green leaves in summer contrasting well with the 
dark cedarS;, and in winter the white bark of the limbs repeating in a 
beautiful way the pilasters and cornices of the buildings. 

Out in front of the dormitory buildings which are low and spread out 
in contrast to the central building, are placed mimosa trees (and holly 
trees for contrast). The mimosa is a broad, spreading, flat-topped tree 
which will repeat the lines of the building it faces. It blooms through 
a long period, its deliciously scented blossoms particularly associated 
with the South where the tree has become naturalized. 

One special consideration has been to keep up a display of flowers as 
constantly through the summer as possible, since the summer school 
makes this institution an all-the-year college. 

In the large oval bed facing the entrance, groups of yucca have been 
indicated. This will give the bed permanent beauty and a subtropical 
touch. The tall white trusses of bloom in early summer will be a decora- 
tion for commencement; the stiff green foliage handsome and formal 
through the year. As a wide border to this central bed I have suggested 
Iris in the school colors — old gold and purple. Iris Germanica Aurea 
is real old gold, not yellow. Inside of this is a border of the tall purple 
Iris Germanica Pallida Speciosa which blooms at the same time. These 
Iris will bloom about the middle of April. There is nothing suitable to 
this bed which would bloom in the school colors at commencement time. 

This suggested planting is not intended as the complete scheme. Some 
two years after this permanent planting of trees and shrubbeiy has been 
done, a good deal of color should be added in the way of hardy herbaceous 
perennials. A great many gaps and spaces should be filled in with such 
perennials as Asclepias tuberosa. Aster grandiflorus, Erithrina Christi- 
Galli, Oriental poppies. Perennial Phlox in white and orange and red, 
HemerocaUis, Mallows in red and white, various roses and perennial 

"When pergolas are built connecting the main building with the side 
buildings, the unity of the plan will be greatly enhanced. These pergolas 
should be covered with vines of yellow jessamine, Cherokee rose, wood- 
bine (Lonicera Sempervirens), and orange trumpet vine. The trumpet 
vines (Tecoma Radicans and Grandiflora) will be especially fine as the 
flowers repeat the color of the buildings almost exactly, particularly the 

38 The Training School Quarterly 

Chinese variety, and they will bloom through a long period in June 
and July. 

Throughout, an effort has been made to keep to unity of effect, unity in 
the disposition of masses, and, above all, unity in color harmony. No 
amount of planting of rare and expensive varieties can be effective unless 
the colors of blossoms are in mass and those masses harmonize with the 
buildings and surroundings. 

As to native trees and shrubs: the effort to repeat the color of the 
buildings in the planting has been paramount to the use of native varie- 
ties. In every case where it has been possible, native trees and shrubs 
have been designated. A great many of the varieties used are common 
to all Southern gardens, and, in a sense, native. It seems to me more 
important to plant with an eye to color and what is distinctively South- 
ern, than to sacrifice the entire effect of the grounds to a botanical sense. 
After the front of the grounds has been planted, there is ample space 
for planting groups of strictly native flowers and shrubs. Another 
point is this : the grounds in front of the buildings are dry fields in full 
sun. Many native plants will require special placing as to shade and 
moisture, and such plantings can be done where those special conditions 
exist in various other parts of the campus. 

Broad-leaved evergreens are characteristically Southern, just as Spruce 
and fir are of the Xorth. As far as possible, I have used broad-leaved 
evergreens, especially across the front of the buildings. Cape Jessamine, 
Camelia Japonica, Sweet Olive, single white Oleander, Lauristinus 
(Yirburnum Tinus), Osmanthus — all these will grow well in the posi- 
tions indicated. Many of these shrubs can be seen growing finely in 
various Greenville yards. 

The winter months must be considered as well as the summer months, 
and with a planting that is not bare of leaves through cold weather, 
grounds are more cheerful and seem actually warmer than the thermom- 
eter will indicate. 

The cost of this planting should be divided up into five periods of 
one year each. All of the trees and the larger groups of shrubbery 
should be planted first, to be followed yearly with additions of the 
smaller groups and plantings. Finally the herbaceou.s varieties can be 
put in last, as they will give a full return in one season. 

This will spread the cost of planting over a sufficient period to keep 
the expense from falling too heavily at any one time and results will be 
just as satisfactory at the end of five years as they would be should the 
planting be done complete at once. Jaques Busbee. 

A Sketch of Helen Keller 

Nelle White, '16. 

Ou May 1, 1916, Helen Keller, perhaps the most celebrated woman 
of America, was at East Carolina Teachers Training School, and with 
her was her teacher, Mrs. Macy. 

A large audience greeted them and during the whole time every one 
was breathlessly attentive, even the children. 

Before Miss Keller made her talk Mrs. Macy gave a thrilling account 
of her work with Helen, telling of her early days and many incidents 
of her life, how she overcame difficulties, and how determined she was 
to go forward and to take a college course. 

After Mrs. Macy's talk, Helen Keller was led to the rostrum amid 
applause from the audience. She is very young looking, has ash-blonde, 
wavy hair, fair complexion, and is of a good build — altogether a hand- 
some, attractive young woman. She .shows her wonderful health in 
every way. She is very light on her feet and often springs lightly on 
her toes. 

She had been on the rostrum only a short time when she caught the 
odor of a lily and wanted to find it. Mrs. Macy led her to it. Helen 
smelled it and said: "Beautiful, beautiful." The spontaneity of the 
act captivated the audience at once. 

Before she began her talk she repeated the twenty-third Psalm, because 
it was perfectly familiar to all, so as to accustom the audience to her 

Mrs. Macy said : "It has taken over twenty years for Helen to learn 
to speak as well as she does now, but there is much yet to be desired." 
Mrs. Macy talked to Helen a short while before she began, and Helen 
read her teacher's lips by putting her fingers on her lips and throat. 
The subject of her talk was "Happiness." She made those in the au- 
dience feel that having all their senses, they should do more to make 
those happy around them than they had done. 

She said that people should be happy, and they could be so by making 
others happy. Below are some quotations from her talk : 

"Happiness comes from within; love and happiness from achievement and 

"There is no darkness that the sun fails to find." 

"He blocks progress who stands still." 

"The secret of happiness is to do for others." 

"We live for each other and by each other." 

"It is more difficult to teach the ignorant to think than the blind to see." 

After she finished the audience asked her questions, which were 

40 TiiK Training School Quarterly 

repeated to her by Mrs. Macy. Her answers showed her ready wit and 
sound judgment. Here are a few of them : 

"When did you become a Christian?" "When I was about nine." 

"When did you learn about God?" "I had always known about Him, but 
had forgotten His name." 

"What did you like best about college?" "Graduation. Then Philosophy, 
as it was so beautiful and helpful." 

"What is your highest ambition?" "To help make men happy and good." 

"Are you a Suffragist?" "Yes" (very emphatically). 

"Why?" "Every up-to-date woman is." 

"How do you stand on the subject of 'Preparedness'?" "Dead against it." 

"Why?" "Because it ultimately means war. But I would be for it if only 
Kaisers, kings, and Congressmen wore to do the fighting." 

"You do believe in some kind of 'preparedness,' do you not?" "Yes; the 
preparedness that promotes intelligence and efficiency; that includes good 
roads, schools, clean cities, and better wages for working men." 

"Do you think in words or sentences?" "I think in ideas." 

"Have you any perception of color?" "I can perceive green when I talk to 
some people." 

"What sense had you rather have restored, if you could have one?" "Hear- 
ing, for that cuts me off from the world more than blindness does." 

"Do you swim and row?" "Yes, I do both." 

Various other questions were asked and she showed her keen intelli- 
gence and wit in answering them. She told how she could feel the ap- 
plause through her feet; she knew when the audience laughed by the 
"pleasant tremblings in the air," and she told how she heard music 
through her hands. 

Every one took away in his heart the sweet message that Miss Keller 
gave them ; each felt as if he had witnessed a miracle. 

As Miss Keller and Mrs. Macy are making a tour of iSTorth Carolina, 
it seems that this is an opportune time to give a short sketch of her life. 
She was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama, in 18S0, and is the daughter of 
Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She is related on one side 
to Governor Spottswood, and on the other to Edward Everett Hale. 

She was a normal child until she was nineteen months old, when she 
was very ill, the nature of which illness has never been found out, and 
as a result she became deaf and blind and for the first few years dumb, 

During the first nineteen months of her life she caught glimpses of 
broad, green fields, a luminous sky, trees and flowers, which were not 
wholly blotted out by the darkness that soon enveloped her. By signs 
she was able to make those around her understand what she wanted. 
When she wanted bread she made the motion of cutting and buttering it. 
Her mother and father understood her, and she could make a little negro 
girl named Martha Washington understand her. 

After she had been using signs for some time the desire to express 
her wants and thoughts grew so rapidly that her parents decided to 
secure a teacher for her to see what could be done for her. 

A Sketch of Helen Kelleb 41 

Througli Dr. Howe, of Perkins Institute, Boston, who had done so 
much for Laura Bridgman, the first blind, deaf and dumb child who 
had been taught. Miss Anne Sullivan, now Mrs. Macy, was secured for 
Helen. Mrs. Macy arrived at Tuscumbia in March, 1S87, and she 
became very much interested in Helen at once. She taught Helen her 
first lesson by means of a doll Laura Bridgman had dressed for her. 
When she gave her the doll she spelled the word d-o-l-l into her hand, 
and, although she did not understand, she imitated her and soon could 
spell it. She learned cahe and other words in the same way, but she 
only thought it was a game she was playing. Full understanding did 
not dawn upon her until one day when she was taken to the pump and 
water was pumped over her hand. While the water was being pumped 
on one hand the teacher spelled iu-a4-e-r into the other hand. She stood 
still, but in a few minutes a light, the light of intelligence showed on 
her face, for she realized that everything has a name. She wanted to 
know the name of everything around her. She learned thirty new words 
in a few hours. From this time on she learned rapidly. She soon 
learned to read Braille type and could read stories for herself. 

Still she was not satisfied for she wished to learn to speak like other 
people, so she was taken to Boston, and Mrs. Sara Fuller, who had 
worked in this line before, taught her the elements of speech. She was 
delighted when she could make sounds and was happy when she uttered 
her first sentence, which was : "I am not dumb now." 

In 1904 she graduated at Kadcliffe College, which had seemed im- 
possible to many, but by perseverance and work she overcame all the 
difficulties she met. On almost all of her classes her teacher spelled 
into her hand what the instructors said. 

"The Story of My Life" was written by her as themes while she was 
in college. She writes for some magazines sometimes, but is devoting 
her life in trying to make it so that the blind will have' less difficulty in 
getting the books and other things that they need. She also does all 
she can to make people happy. 

Helen Keller never likes to be idle, but wants to be doing something 
all the time. She wants to be like other people, and most of all to talk 
to them on topics of the day. 

From her letters in "The Story of My Life" much is learned in regard 
to her personality. She is very sympathetic and tender-hearted, happy, 
contented with her lot, likes to do for others and wants to help in great 
movements for improvements. 

Perhaps .some will be interested to read her first letter, which was 

written three months after her teacher came, to her Cousin Anna (Mrs. 

Geo. T. Turner) : 

Tuscumbia. Ai.a.. June 17. 1887. 

helen write anna george will give helen apple simpson will shoot bird jack 

will give helen stick of candy doctor will give mildred medicine mother will 

make mildred new dress. ("o signature.) 


The Tkaining School Quakterly 

She improved in lier writing very rapidly. She does almost all of 
her work now on a typewriter. From this first baby letter to the leading 
articles in the best magazines is a far cry. But the wonderful thing 
in her life, the miracle, is developing speech from absolute dumbness to 
the point where she can address audiences in large halls so that she can 
be heard and understood. More wonderful still, she does not merely call 
words so that one can catch the miracle of speech from the dumb, but she 
delivers a message replete with sound philosophy, wholesome optimism, 
that within itself is an inspiration. Helen Keller is a miracle and a 

Reports on Special Trips 

Miss Armstrong's Report on the Sand Hill Farm Life School 

Miss Martha Armstrong, teacher of Household Economics in East 
Carolina Teachers Training School, spent three days this spring giving 
lectures and demonstrations in the Eureka, or Sand Hill, Farm-Life 
School in Moore County. This is the school in which Miss Mary 
Eankin, formerly of the Training School, is working. Miss Rankin told 
in the last issue of the Quarterly some of the interesting things they 
were doing. Miss Armstrong's report gives the point of view not of the 
mere visitor, but of the expert who would he keenly sensitive to all of 
the household affairs in this school community. It would be interesting 
to put the two accounts together. It is in the main the same story, but 
from a different angle. Miss Annstrong may tell the story of her visit 
herself : 

"All of the work of this school is done by the boarding pupils, who are 
required to give a certain amount of time each day to the work; they are 
paid for excess time at the rate of 10 cents per hour. One group of girls gets 
breakfast, which is served at 6:45. After breakfast, while they are washing 
dishes, another group prepares lunch, leaving it on the back of the stove to 
cook slowly or ready to be finished quickly at noon. The girls who are not 
busy in the kitchen clean the house. Supper is cooked in the evening by the 
group that cleans the house in the morning. The boys make the fires, bring 
in wood, take off the garbage, and help with the heavier work of the house, 
in addition to doing their work on the farm. 

"While I was there a protracted meeting was going on and the farm work 
was discontinued for the time being. There were two meetings a day. The 
girls were tired out from attending the meeting, so the teacher of agriculture 
and four boys volunteered to wash dishes one night and cook breakfast two 
mornings. They did this very creditably with Miss Rankin's assistance, much 
to the joy of the girls. One little ten-year-old fellow liked it so well that he 
wished to keep it up. 

"Several girls are paying part of their expenses by serving tea and sand- 
wiches to automobilists. As the school is on one of the pikes, they make a 
neat little sum. They also make candy, which is sold by one of the stores in 
Pinehurst. They cannot supply the demand. 

"The school is indeed the real community center. At least one entertain- 
ment a month is given for the neighborhood. Church services are held in the 
school building. During the protracted meeting the girls served hot coffee 
at noon to the families who brought their lunch and stayed to both meetings. 

"Winter tourists who come to Pinehurst and Southern Pines and the peo- 
ple of the neighboring towns manifest great interest in the school. Many 
books and magazines are given to the school. There is a constant stream of 

"The women are now working for money to erect a new dormitory this 
summer as the school has outgrown the old one. At one time the people of 
Southern Pines gave a sale from which they realized $1,100. One lady was 

44 The Tkainino School Quarteblt 

going to give a card party to raise money to buy a mule. By the end of the 
summer they will have established a model dairy. The school is fortunate in 
that it has such excellent financial support. 

"A year ago the school was an ordinary country high school. The Woman's 
Auxiliary of the Sand Hill Board of Trade decided that their county must 
have a farm-life school. They chose the Eureka School for the place, and de- 
cided to build a new schoolhouse and a girls' dormitory just across the road 
from the old schoolhouse, which was made over into a dormitory for the boys. 
A small chemical laboratory and a barn were added to these buildings, mak- 
ing a group of buildings. A well with a force pump, a hot-air furnace, and 
electric lights were installed. The school has a farm of about sixty acres. 

"The girls' dormitory is the center of the school social life. There is a big 
living-room with comfortable chairs, books, and a rack full of magazines. 
Here the students gather for a short time in the evenings and listen to some 
one's playing on the piano, or to the Victrola, which was given to the school 
by one of the winter tourists who did not wish to take the trouble of carry- 
ing it back home with him. The dining-room has a big open fireplace, which 
makes corn-popping and apple-roasting favorite amusements. 

"The kitchen is fitted with all the inexpensive conveniences, the fireless 
cooker, rolling tray, sink, running water, a garbage chute, an oil stove, all 
of which the women of the neighborhood might have in their own homes. In 
the weekly cooking lessons given to the women of the community they are 
taught to use these conveniences. 

"The school is the center of the canning clubs, and the county agent has 
given a canner to the school. 

"The school is certainly doing a great many interesting things, and I am 
greatly interested in watching it." 

Miss Armstrong gave three demonstrations to the women of the com- 
munity. The first one was the cooking of meats. Meats were prepared 
in several different ways ; for instance, roast meat, baked chicken, broiled 
pork, and beef stew. The second day the demonstration was on bread- 
making, particularly loaf bread and rolls. The stew, which did not have 
time to get done the day before, was served with the bread. The tbird 
day was devoted to a demonstration and talk on the arrangement of the 
kitchen, and home equipment. All of the high school boys and the 
principal attended this so that they could learn to make the things recom- 
mended for their own homes. 

Miss Davis Visits Other Normal Schools 

Miss Sallie Joyner Davis had a week's leave of absence during the 
spring for the purpose of visiting other normal schools. Instead of 
dissipating her time by trying to catch fleeting glimpses only of several 
schools she concentrated on two that she considered representative types 
of the schools that are doing somewhat the same work that this school is 
doing. The two schools that she chose Avere the Eastern Kentucky 
Normal at Richmond, Kentucky, and the State Normal and Industrial 
School at Harrisonburg, Virginia. 

The Eastern Kentucky Normal is the successor to the campus of 
the old Central University, therefore, it has a campus much older than 

Reports on Special Trips 45 

the school. Miss Davi& spoke enthusiastically of this beautiful campus, 
which has wonderful elms planted down the driveways. One of the 
features that impressed her was the success of co-education. Of the 
seven or eight hundred students, forty-five per cent were men and fifty- 
five per cent women. The spirit was rather like the western spirit than 
the southern in the attitude towards co-education. 

A very efficient Model School is one of the most excellent departments 
of this normal school. Although this school is in the administration 
building one would never know it from the noise. The order and disci- 
pline that were maintained without the feeling of strained effort for it 
was noticeable. 

Miss Davis was the guest of the school. She came away with very 
delightful impressions. 

At Harrisonburg she was greatly impressed with the excellent exten- 
sion work in Domestic Science. Twenty-two girls were teaching in 
fourteen schools, each girl teaching a class once a week. They went 
out on early morning trains to the schools in the surrounding towns, 
and in vehicles to the schools in the country; some of the trains left as 
early as five-thirty o'clock. The head of the department spent every 
morning visiting these schools, directing the work, and met her classes 
in the normal school in the afternoons. 

Miss Davis enjoyed seeing the handsome new library this school has, 
and watching the efficient service in the library, but sighed for the time 
when we, too, could boast of ours. She found that the practice work of 
the student teachers of the grades was done in the schools of the town. 

Some of the most delightful hours of her trip were those between 
trains at Staunton when she visited the Mary Baldwin School, the board- 
ing school she attended. She says it is the last word said on the select 
boarding school for girls. From cellar to attic she inspected it. A 
quarter of a million dollars has been spent on the school recently. 

The week-end before returning home Miss Davis stopped over in 
Washington, visiting the Congressional Library, Congress, Smithsonian 
Institution, the Bureau of Engraving, and other places. She says she 
went nowhere that she did not go for the special purpose of getting 
something specific for this school. The' students thoroughly enjoyed 
getting her reports of her trip while they were fresh in her mind. 

She brought back many excellent ideas. In some things she felt thar 
we had much to give others and in other things she thought we could 
benefit from them. 

46 The Training School Qi-arteijly 

*The Threshold 

Baebara Seymour 

Life lies before me, but shut is the door 
On all my childish days. No more, no more 
Shall I in all my years again be free 
And careless — happy as I used to be. 
So be it, Lord! I know that is all right, 
I would not alter it, or shirk the fight. 
Shut then the door — but leave a little crack 
That when I meet a child I may slip back. 

Harper's Magazine, March, 1916. 

'CopjTight 1916, by Harper and Brothers. 

Cf)e Craining ^cfiool (!^uarterlj> 

Published by the Students and Faculty of the East Carolina Teachees 
Training School, Greenville, N. C. 

Entered as Second Class Matter, June 3, 1914, at the Postofl&ce at Greenville, N. C., 
under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

Price: 50 cents a year. 15 cents single copy. 

FACULTY EDITOR Mamie E. Jenkins 

ALUMNA EDITOR Pattie S. Dowell 

Laniee Literary Society. Poe Literary Society. 

Julia Rankin, Editor-in-Chief. Lucile O'Brian, Business Manager. 

Trilby Smith, Assistant Editor. Alice Herring, Assistant Editor. 

Vol. III. APRIL, MAY, JUNE, 1916. No. 1 

It Is Mine 

A child that has been allowed to have his own little 
patch of ground, to plant his own radishes, onions, beans, 
corn, and the particular vegetable that he likes best, 
never gets away from the love of the soil. Even a few seed in a few 
square feet of ground planted, watered, cultivated, watched day by day, 
can open the mind to all processes of nature that are essential. It is like 
Tennyson's "Flower in the crannied wall — Could I but understand you 
I would know God and the universe." The pictures of the gardens 
at the Training School show the students at work on their plots; the 
article by the teacher who watches their interest in these gardens gives 
the details. 

Agriculture Agriculture and the "sweet girl graduate" may not 

Graduates seem at first sight to harmonize. Both are in this num- 

ber of the Quaktekly; if you stop and think about it 
there is no reason why they should not be, and many reasons why they 
should be. Why should not variety, in a magazine as well as out of it, be 
the spice of life? We have the doctrine that all should be well balanced 
preached to us from all platforms. We are advised to have our days 
well balanced, dividing up the work and the play; labor should be well 
balanced, having some mental and some manual; we talk of well-bal- 
anced meals, well-balanced minds; what does it all mean, if not the old 
proverb on variety ? 

The senior department, however, has far more value than merely 
giving variety. If it had no virtue within itself it would not be in the 
magazine. It gives an insight into the personality of forty-eight young 

48 TiiK Tr^vinino School Quarterly 

womeu who are going to be in forty-eight diflFerent school rooms next 
year. Let each one have only thirty pupils; and a simple operation 
in arithmetic will help you to see how far-reaching their personalities 
will be. Why should not these forty-eight young women be of interest 
to the public? A. U. 

The Senior In the Senior departiiioiit of this iiunilx^r of the Qtar- 

TERLY the quotations that feature some characteristic of 
each girl were not ])icked up at random and indiscrim- 
inately attached to any girl. They are the result of careful search 
through the plays of Shakespeare; in this tercentenary year it seemed 
fitting to honor each girl with the line from the great master of human 
nature that seemed written just for her. 

The forecasting of the future of each member of the class is not the 
mere play of fancy, flights of youthful and vivid imagination for the 
entertainment of the class, but is based on the fundamental principles 
of psychology. The facetious vein in which these principles are applied 
merely proves that these girls are normal, fun-loving creatures. 

The chronicles left by each Senior class published in the Quarterly 
furnish a complete record of school events that center in the class activi- 
ties that in the future will have historical value. This summary of 
events of the four years life of a class gives an insight into the life 
of the school. 

Why not read this department and see what the girls say for them- 
selves and each other? A. H. 

The Training Que of the marked features of the Training School 

Responds to from the beginning has been the readiness with which 
Calls those connected with the school have responded to all 

demands from the community and from beyond. It has been the policy 
of those in authority to keep the school as much a part of life as possible. 
A glance through the department of "School Notes" of any issue of the 
Quarterly will give some idea of the demands made on faculty and 
students, and will show what the school brings to the community. The 
president of the school attends all of the big educational meetings 
throughout the country whenever he thinks it probable that he can get 
anything of value for the school. The men of the faculty are in demand 
as commencement speakers. The members of the faculty have repeated 
calls for doing extension work. The amount of extension carried on 
through private correspondence cannot well be estimated. The people 
of the town find the teachers ready to respond to calls for aid in clubs, 
church work, and in school affairs, wherever they are needed to help. 

The same spirit is encouraged in the students. During the year the 
members of the Senior class have been conducting story-stelling at the 

Editorials 49 

Greenville Public Library.- The student-teachers have supplied for 
regular teachers in both the town and county schools when a teacher had 
to be absent from her work. While the opportunity to get experience 
is excellent for any girl, it would be easy for her to become so absorbed 
in the routine life of the school that she would feel that she could not 
break away from it. "Give all that thou hast" is the dominant feeling in 
faculty and students. J. R. 

History There have been a number of requests from far and 

Then and wide for the last number of the Quarterly because of 

^^ the suggestions on the teaching of primary history. This 

was largely due to the fact, perhaps, that the History Teachers' Maga- 
zine referred to these suggestions. Whatever the cause, it is clear that 
teachers and superintendents are on the alert for ideas for vitalizing 

Once the mere mention of history produced a weary feeling; endless 
lines of kings, wars that one could not keep straight, dates without facts 
attached to them, and isolated facts without dates, all crowded pellmell 
into the brain. One shudders yet at the memory of grilling he had to 
endure as a child, if the teacher were the conscientious type. Other 
teachers heard the lesson with the book open, keeping an eye on the 
dates, and excused the children for not remembering them. One of the 
"bromides" of conversation is, "I never could remember dates." 

ISTow, how different ! History is life. In the lower grades it is making 
playhouses, playing the home-life of the people the child knows, of the 
interesting little folks of other lands, Eskimos, Japanese, Dutch. It is 
the child's natural play turned to account. When the child gets this 
idea of history he never loses the realization that history is a record 
of life. 

As It A young, prospective teacher, in looking around for 

Should Be her first position, selected the county she wished to teach 

in, found the type of school in which she thought she 
would fit, and applied for the place. She was asked to meet the com- 
mitteemen on the first Monday that she could get away from school. 
She met them, talked over the whole situation with them, and was 
offered the position. Before she left the community she visited the 
schoolhouse, got all the information she could about the school, learned 
what the teacher attempted to do this year, so that she could build her 
work next year on what had already been done, came in contact with 
the people, and found out what the chief problems of the school and the 
community were. All summer long this young teacher will have in mind 
the school she is going into next fall, and all she does and thinks will 

50 Thk Training Sciio<m. (^iautkuly 

center in this. She will go into the couunuiiity in September eager to 
begin her work, ready for it ; she knows what she is going to attempt to 
do and has her year's campaign mapped out. 

Contrast with this the other ty[)e, the teacher who is going to teach 
solely for what she can get out of it, i)utting as little as possible into it. 
She goes to her work on the last train, and goes to the schoolhouse the 
first morning to get ready to begin to get ready. It will take her half 
the year to find out what the other girl knows before her school opens, 
if she ever does find out. Which one do you prefer? 

One Who Dr. Kary C. Davis, the writer of the leading article 

Knows i^^ t^is number of the Quarterly, has a vantage point 

that enables him to look over the whole field of agricul- 
ture, especially the teaching of agriculture, and get it in perspective. 
He sees the strong points, the defects, the causes of failure and success, 
and can suggest remedies where they are needed. Reference to "Who's 
Wbo" will disclose the fact that he is an authority second to none. It 
is interesting to note that he develops the cultural value of Agriculture, 
and stresses the need for teachers of agriculture who have background. 
The teacher of agriculture who cannot use clear, correct English, who 
cannot write well, and speak convincingly is seriously handicapped. 
Teachers of agriculture will not be accepted as leaders until men of 
personality and ability take up the work. They must have more than 
fact knowledge of the subject. 


A 1916 Model Store in the Third Grade 

"How am I to make children feel a need for working little problems 
in order to develop tlieir reasoning power, after they have been drilled 
on the four fundamental processes of arithmetic?" This was the ques- 
tion that confronted the teacher of the third grade at the Model School. 

A teacher who wishes to make arithmetic as attractive and practical 
as possible should provide some means by which the children will enjoy 
number combinations. After having read what other teachers have 
done to solve thi^ problem, the teacher of the third grade decided that a 
store could be worked in this grade, and based her work more directly on 
the ideas brought out in Miss Helen Strong's article, "Using JSTumber 
Combinations to Meet a Social JSTeed," printed in last summer's Quar- 

Almost every child, at some time, has a little money of his own, and 
is at liberty to go to the store and buy what he pleases. Many times 
his mother sends him on an errand for her. Thinking of the various 
helps connected with the store, the teacher asked the children if they 
would like to have a store in school, and, if so, where. A child sug- 
gested that one corner of the room be used. Chairs, with boards across 
them, were used for counters, as there were no boxes convenient. 

"What shall we have in the store ?" was then the question. The chil- 
dren suggested various things : cans that once held peas, beans, corn, 
soups, and fruits ; empty cereal boxes, as Quaker Oats and Puffed Kice ; 
cans of coffee, sugar, tea; and empty bottles. The children enjoyed 
bringing these from their homes from day to day. 

For fresh fruit the children used the oranges, apples, bananas, pears, 
cherries, and lemons that they had cut from drawing paper and colored. 
This furnished busy work for one section while the others solved prob- 
lems about the store. The month was February, therefore Valentines, 
hatchets, flags, and booklets for George Washington's birthday were 
made and sold in the store. 

When the store was stocked with a sufficient amount of goods and 
the children had found out the prices, the arrangement and handling of 
goods was discussed. The unsanitary way in which candies and fruits 
are usually handled was emphasized. 

Two of the children were then chosen to arrange the store and serve 
as clerks. A certain amount of money was distributed to each child, 
and several dollars in change given to the clerks. The money used was 
that ordered from Milton and Bradley, Springfield, Mass., at 25 cents 
a box. A box contains around 300 dollars in the different combinations. 

52 The Teainlng School Qdabtebly 

If you can not get this, have the children cut discs the regular size of 
money from pasteboard or drawing paper, and mark the amounts on 

Before going to the store each child would come to the front of the 
room, give the price of the object he wa^ going to buy, and the amount 
of change he would receive. If the class said his calculations were 
right, he could then go to the store. If he wished to buy a list of things 
a memorandum was made. As this required spelling various words, it 
Avas a motive for good spelling lessons. Sometimes a bookkeeper was 
selected Avho kept books on the board by writing down the amount taken 
in. At the end of each lesson the class figured the amount made that 
day, and if a mistake was made they felt the need of being more accurate 
the following day. 

On the last day the children imagined that their fruit was rapidly 
decaying and they had better have a special sale, reduce the prices, and 
sell out the entire stock. They wanted a big crowd at the sale, so after 
a spelling lesson on the names of fruits, each child made a poster, and 
the best ones were tacked on the door. A few minutes before the sale 
several children wdth posters tied on their backs marched through the 
fourth-grade room. Each child was given fifty cents for bargains. When 
the advertised hour, 10 :30, came, the room was filled with children 
ready to buy. In a few minutes the entire stock w^as sold. The children 
learned what a special sale was for, how it was managed, and the im- 
portance of good advertising in order to have a big crowd. 

From this we see the many values of the store in the school-room. It 
furnished motives for lessons in spelling, language, writing, drawing, 
history, hygiene and sanitation, and especially in number work in its 
most practical way. Allen Gardner, '16. 

Freehand Cutting in the First Grade 

Freehand cutting of the various early spring flowers, the geranium, 
hyacinth, crocus, jonquil, and tulip were used for independent seatwork, 
in the first grade at the Model School. Several cuttings of the flowers 
in different positions and colors were made, and placed before the chil- 
dren as models. The only directions given were just to call their atten- 
tion to the shape and color of the leaves and flowers, then they were left 
free to cut them according to their own ideas. They cut each petal 
separately, then pasted them so that they would form the flower, on grey 
or white paper, which served as a background. For instance, in cutting 
the geranium the flower was formed by pasting little pieces of red paper, 
or the color wanted, to form the flower. While, on the other hand, in 
cutting the crocus the flower was cut from yellow paper as a whole, 
then the leaves and stem out of green, and pasted on the grey paper. 

The children were highly delighted with them, and the student teach- 
ers delighted with their success. The best were selected and put up to 

Suggestions 53 

forin a border around the room, and the children were pleased when 
visitors commented on the spring-like effect of the room. 

Jessamine Ashley, '16. 

[As the schools are all closed it was deemed best not to have as many 
suggestions as usual from the student teachers of the Model School. 
Only two are given. In place of others a piece of practical work, full 
of suggestion, done by one of the regular classes in the school is given. — 

History Made Real by a Magazine 

During the past year the National Geographic Magazine, a file of 
which we have almost unbroken since the beginning of 1910, has been 
an unfailing source of help and pleasure to the B group of students in 
their European history. 

In the fall we found the magazine particularly helpful in our once-a- 
week current news class when we were trying to find out something more 
of the leading countries, now involved in war, than that they were places 
on the map and stood first, second, or last in the list of great naval or 
military powers. The one hundred illustrations that are to be found 
in one number about the people of France, made us understand more 
keenly the reasons why France was able to check the mighty raid of the 
Germans in the fall of 1914. 

Our year's work in the text-book began with the formation of Charle- 
magne's great empire, and from the very beginning we were able to 
supplement the text-book with some number of the magazine that helped 
us to bridge over the gap between us and the past. Assignments were 
carefully given by our teacher and each girl was held responsible for 
an oral report fixed for a certain time. As the class time was limited 
the girls had to use much skill and judgment in the presentation of 
their topics. 

A new world was opened to us by the magazine while we were study- 
ing about the Crusades, those wonderful expeditions of the people of 
western Europe to reclaim the Holy Lands. We read about the people 
of Jerusalem, how they lived, about the marriage customs, their hospi- 
tality and their kindness to the destitute, their quaint street restaurants, 
where they served roasted meat and flat loaves of bread. We saw the 
pictures of the trees that were so much admired by the Crusaders, who 
attempted to introduce them into Europe. Tracing the routes of the 
Crusades led us through the Balkan States. If the magazine had been 
arranged for our special benefit, it could not have succeeded better. 

From the issue of April, 1915, we learned that Bulgaria was one of the 
most progressive of the Balkan States. We also formed some idea of the 
educational strides of the people and their economic conditions. The 
fact that the women carry water from springs in stone jars made us 
realize how they still cling to primitive customs. We were intere-sted 

54 The Training School Quabtebly 

in the differeut forms of social pleasures, one of which was a dance in 
the mountain village. We saw from the colored prints that the Bul- 
garian girls love bright colors and that their shawls and aprons were 
decorated with beautiful embroidery. The pictures revealed that the 
women work on the farm as much as the men do. 

"We learned that Serena had a liberal constitution, and that manufac- 
turing and agriculture were their chief industries. Of course, we noticed 
the novel customs, such as the way they did their laundry, more than 
we did the vital questions. The women, scorning to be idle, do all the 
household drudgery for their families, but they never take any commer- 
cial positions, considering it a disgrace to work for money outside of 
the home. Isn't that like the women, anywhere, fifty years ago ? 

The picture of a wedding procession in Roumania naturally attracted 
the attention of a group of girls. The bride, with her bridesmaids riding 
in the plebian vehicle, the ox-cart, was interesting to us. To girls whose 
lives have been spent in North Carolina it gave a home-like touch to 
see the familiar sight of an ox-cart. 

Before we used the Geographic Magazine the word Armenia had 
meant a vague territory somewhere in Asia Minor, in fact, it meant 
almost nothing to me. I have learned that Armenia extends from the 
Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, and covers an area of 500,000 
square miles of fertile, rugged, and beautiful land ; that the Armenians 
are not even an organized people, but have to submit to the most inhuman 
treatment by the Turkish government; that they have an eagerness for 
education and this has been encouraged largely by American missionaries. 

It added to our interest that our teacher took a trip while we were 
doing this work, and, on her return, one of the many things that she told 
us was that she had been by the home of the Geographic Magazine. One 
of the girls said, ''My, you felt as though you had met an old friend, 
didn't you?" This is the way we will feel when we take that trip and 
see the home of the Geographic Magazine. 

Bhss Tillitt, '18. 


The Readjustment of a Rural High School to the Needs of the Com- 
munity, by H. A, Brown, Bulletin No. 492, United States Bureau of 

This is the story of the readjustment of Colebrook Academy, which 
is located in the extreme northern part of ISTew Hampshire. The Acad- 
emy was built in 1832 on a grant of land received from the State; later 
it was conducted as a private institution, then as a public high school 
supported by taxation. In 1910 it was decided to reorganize the school 
and instead of keeping the old college preparatory and English curricula, 
four courses of study were substituted: (1) college preparatory; (2) 
commercial; (3) agricultural, and (4) domestic arts. It was felt that 
the old course of study did not prepare the boys and girls for life in the 
way it should ; it was educating them away from the farm. In making 
the change in the curriculum care was taken that such things should be 
offered as would educate the young people to the farm. 

The old Academy building was remodelled and a new building and a 
greenhouse were built. All of these are thoroughly up-to-date. Some 
of the main features are: (1) The greenhouse; (2) the dairy laboratory, 
(3) the domestic arts department, and (4) the shop, including a car- 
penter shoj) and a blacksmith shop. 

The faculty consists of a superintendent, a principal and five teachers ; 
all have specialized in their line of work, and in this way are able to 
meet the approval of the State department of public instruction. 

This is one of the rural schools that is solving the problem of the 
welfare of the countiy districts. It is believed that the training that the 
boys and girls get at such a .school will create within them an interest in 
the farm and home problem and will check the trend toward the city. 
"The rural high school has a most important part to play in the tendency 
known as the 'country life movement.' * * * A great responsibility 
rests upon it and upon those who have its management in charge. It 
can not meet this great responsibility unless its program of studies is 
reconstructed along lines calculated to bring about readjustment to the 
real needs of the community." J- R- 

Efficiency and- Preparation of Rural School Teachers, by Harold "W". 
Foght, specialist in rural school practice. Bulletin 'No. 623, United 
States Bureau of Education. 

In his letter of transmittal, Dr. Claxton says: "The most important 
factor in any school is the teacher. * * * True of all schools, this is 
especially true * * * in the open country village and small town." 

In order to find out about the preparation of the teachers in the rural 
schools of the United States, the Bureau of Education sent inquiries to 

56 The Teainino School Quarterly 

6,000 teachers. About 50 per cent responded. The statistical reports 
given in this bulletin are based upon fifty-five typical counties in the 
United States. ''Of the 2,941 teachers replying, 4 per cent have had less 
than eight years of elementary schooling; 45 per cent have completed 
four years of high school work; 32.3 per cent have had no professional 
preparation, and only 3.2 per cent are normal school graduates." 

Since broader views of rural education have come into prominence, 
there is a demand for the reorganization of the old one-teacher schools, 
and that provision be made for rural high schools that are well equipped 
and in reach of every child. In order that these schools may perform 
their function of making good citizens, they must have professionally 
trained teachers, ''imbued with correct vision and real power, who 
establish themselves in the rural district as permanent teachers and 
county builders." 

Figures show that about two-thirds of the teachers reporting teach 
eight or more grades each. Of the 2,941 teachers reporting, 73 live in 
houses provided by the schools, 2,415 board in the community, and 526 
board outside the district. "Public school teachers in the United States 
receive an average salary of $486. * * * Artisans, domestics, and com- 
mon laborers receive better wages than do these teachers. 

"The change from amateur to professional teaching may be hastened 
in several ways : (1) Salaries should be increased ; * * * (2) the entire 
school plant should be reconstructed to answer present needs and be 
attractive and sanitary; (3) the community should be obliged by legal 
enactment to erect a teachers' cottage; (4) teachers' colleges, normal 
schools, and other schools with teacher-training classes should be en- 
couraged to organize district departments in rural life and rural teaching. 

"The largest immediate supply of rural teacher^ come from the train- 
ing department of the high schools in many States; next, in point of 
number, stands the normal school, schools of education in college and 
universities ; finally come the agricultural colleges." 

I. Report of Boys' Club Work in North Caroli/na; II. Arithmetic 
Problems Based Upon Agricultural Club Wor'k, By T. E. Browne, the 
N'orth Carolina Agricultural Extension Sei-vice, Circular No. 8, gives 
the purpose and the figures of the boys' clubs in N'orth Carolina that 
have been sent in from the different clubs. 

In the section devoted to the history of the club work, many interest- 
ing facts are given. The Boys' Com Club was first organized in 1908, 
to work in connection with the rural schools. It was about this time 
that work was begun by the State Department of Agriculture and the 
Farmers' Cooperative Demonstration Work. Because the work of these 
organizations was .so much alike, confusion arose. In order to prevent 
this all the corn club work was organized under one direction in 1912. 

Poultry clubs and pig clubs were started in 1914, under the Animal 

Reviews 57 

Industry Division of North Carolina Experiment Station, and the 
Bureau of Animal Industry at Washington. This caused more con- 
fusion among the clubs. So, at the beginning of the year 1915, "all the 
boys' club work was placed under the direction of an agent in charge, 
the work to be known as the 'Boys' Agricultural Clubs.' " Since this 
reorganization the work has been satisfactory, and all club work is more 
closely connected. Included in the Boys' Agricultural Clubs today are : 
the Boys' Com Clubs, the Pig Clubs, the Poultry Clubs, the Crop Rota- 
tion Clubs, the Peanut Clubs, the Potato Clubs, the Cotton Clubs, and 
the Negro Boys' Farm Clubs. 

Since the reorganization the membership has increased and there has 
been great improvement in the reports and written histories that the 
boys send in. In the report the names, with their counties, are given 
of twelve boys who raised one hundred or more bushels of corn on one 
acre, at a cost of less than twenty cents a bushel. 

In order to reach as many boys and girls as possible, letters are sent 
in bulk to the county superintendents, and they are asked to distribute 
them among the teachers. The teachers are then supposed to interest 
the children in the movement, and to have all who wish to join the clubs 
fill out the enclosed blank and send back to the department. Once or 
twice a month circular letters, advising about the work to be done at 
that particular time, are sent to each member. Besides this, personal 
letters and bulletins and circulars of the Extension Service and the 
United States Department of Agriculture are mailed frequently. When- 
ever possible the agents visit the members and advise them about the 

During the summer .short schools of one or two days are held in many 
counties and the men of the club work teach the boys some of the funda- 
mental principles of plant and animal growing. A short course lasting 
four days is held at the Agricultural and Mechanical College, and the 
boys have the privilege of hearing lectures delivered by members of the 
college faculty and of visiting the experiment station. Besides, there 
are illustrated lectures, and sight-seeing trips over the Capital. The 
Crop Rotation Club joined the other clubs in 1916, and it is too early to 
have a report from it. 

During 1915 the department of the Negro Boys' Farm Clubs was 
added. Its work is to be done in cooperation with the Agricultural and 
Technical College for negroes at Greensboro, and the office of the Boys' 
Agricultural Clubs at West Raleigh. 

Five thousand five hundred members are enrolled in all these clubs 
now — Corn Club: total number of boys enrolled in the State, 3,504; 
total number of bushels reported, 70,062.5; total cost, $30,611.85; total 
profit, $39,450.65; 95 of the 100 counties have members enrolled; 50 
boys made ]00 bushels and over. Pig Club: total enrollment, 768; 
average weight of pigs for market, 269.7 pounds; average initial cost 

58 The Training School Quarterly 

of pigs for meat, $4.28. Poultry Club : total enrollment, 1,056 ; total 
number of chickens raised, 14,965 ; total value of chickens raised, 

Fifty arithmetic problems based upon the agricultural club work have 
been prepared for supplementary work in the rural schools. They are 
suitable for sixth- and seventh-grade work, preferably the sixth. Any 
teacher will be supplied for the asking. These problems give not only 
excellent training in arithmetic, but, also, a great deal of valuable in- 
formation. They show the children the relation between farm work 
and arithmetic. The problems on measuring an acre of land and run- 
ning oif the corn rows give good exercise in visualization and practical 
measurements. From the problems on fertilizers the children learn to 
read fertilizer formulae and to find out what kind will bring the best 
results at the least cost. The problems that call for the cost of raising 
things give good training in bookkeeping, for accurate account is kept 
of the little things that a farmer seldom keeps on his book, such as the 
value of the child's time, pasturage and kitchen waste. It encourages 
the farmer to put all on a cost system, J. R. 

The American Schoolmaster, published by the Michigan State ISTormal 
College, at Ypsilanti, Michigan, is one of the best monthly magazines 
devoted to the professional aspects of teaching. It generally has three 
or more articles on live educational problems written by people who have 
worked on that line. The department, "From the Educational Field," 
gives short, concise expressions on vital questions. Some of these ques- 
tions discussed in the March, 1916, number are: "Government Aids in 
Home Making," "Practice Cottages for Home Economics," and "Cot- 
tages for Teachers." The editorial comment is live and interesting, 
such subjects as the "Teacher's Purpose" and "The Recitation's Worth" 
are discussed. Many of the best new books are reviewed and commented 
upon by men and women whose opinion holds weight. J. R. 

The Normal Instructor and Primary Plans, Dansville, New York, 
the monthly magazine for teachers of all grades, offers a variety of most 
practical help in each issue. It is truly a teacher's friend. 

It has much material that is so fully developed that the inexperienced 
teacher can readily use it. Whether the teacher wants devices full 
enough to follow exactly or mere suggestions from which she can make 
her own plans, she can get help here. In each issue there are articles on 
live topics of educational interest written by teachers and super\'isors 
actually in the work. 

Model lesson plans on language, nature study, and, in fact, all sub- 
jects are given with directions for carrying them out. Particularly 
valuable are the suggestions in every number for drawing lessons, sand- 
tables, and room decorations. Many of these have directions, illustra- 
tions, and pen pictures the right size to be transferred and used as they 

Reviews 59 

are. Plans for teaching tlie great masterpieces of art are given, witli 
whole pages of small-sized reproductions to be cut out and used by each 
child on class. The music and dances published are particularly attrac- 
tive, with the actual music, and diagrams, and illustrations for the 
dances so they can be easily taught. Stories and story telling hold an 
important place. A department is given over to community work, and 
in each issue appropriate programs are given, so there is a variety to 
select from. 

The material is concrete for the carrying out of principles, yet you 
rarely find statements of principles themselves, because it is taken for 
granted that the teacher has sound ideas. It is of particular help to the 
inexperienced teacher who has a good set of principles, but has had 
little experience in expressing them in connected form. This furnishes 
devices for the carrying out of her ideas. 

The dream of one man, Mr. F. A. Owen, more than twenty-five years 
ago was of putting under one cover everything of a practical nature 
that could be used by all teachers of all grades in all schools. Mr. Owen 
had to work his way through school by hard work, chopping cord wood 
and doing other things of that nature. After he had left school he began 
publishing this magazine of his dreams in a one-room loft of a barn 
in Dansville, ISTew York. It has grown from its small beginning and 
has been moved repeatedly into bigger quarters until it now occupies 
a great daylight factory in which hundreds of people are employed. Its 
presses are of the finest and most modern. J. R. 

One day, as I wandered about upon the face of the earth, I came upon 
the brink of a great chasm, a gorge thousands of feet deep, so many 
miles long that the eye lost itself upon the rims as it sought the one end 
or the other, and it was many miles wide. But its depth brought its 
sides close to each other and the eye was deceived into thinking the 
gorge narrow. 

Seeing a trail leading down from the brink, I started down the cliffs. 
After many perils I found myself over 6,000 feet below the brink. Pass- 
ing by me, roaring and surging like fury, ran a large river. The roar 
was that of a thousand storms and the fury. Casting my eyes to Heaven 
I beheld the sun, the moon, and the stars. Then it was that my finite 
mind grasped a speck of the infinite and from the deep my soul mounted 
upon the wings of the morning and I came into the presence of God. 

Life is in the midst of a gorge with surging currents. There are 
cliffs upon cliffs, heights upon heights, steep upon steep for man to 

Mount upward, O man, and never falter. Climb higher and higher, 
leaving the sultiy air of the gorge below and ever climb to brighter 
heights and purer air until you finally climb to the height He intended 
for you to reach. There you will find HIM. R. H. "Wright. 


Annie Mae Hudson, '13, is at the Methodist Orphanage, Winston- 
Salem. This home is supported by the Conference of Western North 
Carolina. There are 135 children in the home, ten of whom are too 
small to attend school. Annie Mae has the first, second, and third 
grades in the Orphanage school, and says she is kept "awfully busy," 
but has no daily, monthly, or annual reports to make out ! And another 
thing about it, she does not have to worry her brain with a register, 
as others do. However, when a little "Bundle of Energy" catches measles 
or mumps, for instance, she has the nursing to do, and not of one child 
alone, but of every one under her care, for in a place of this kind when 
one child has a contagious disease, all try to have it. How would you 
like nursing your school children? 

Mary Newby White, '13, attended Mr. Meadows' address at the clos- 
ing exercises of the Sunbury School. Her little bunch of wrigglers and 
twisters at Tyner won the prize for improvement to school grounds and 
building, which amounted to a sum of twelve or more dollars, at the 
county commencement on March 31st. Three other prizes were also 
won by the Tynerites. 

Bettie Spencer, '15, Grimesland, Kate Tillery, '15, Ayden, and Luella 
Lancaster, '14, also of Grimesland, attended "Midsummer Night's 
Dream," in Greenville, April 10th. 

Sallie F. Jackson, '15, Pikeville, is principal of a two-teacher school 
eight miles from Pikeville. The school building is a very nice one, 
two rooms with folding doors between them. There is a good library ; in 
addition to this maps, globes, charts, new desks for teachers and pupils, 
and several good chairs have been lately purchased. Before the Christ- 
mas holidays the children and the teachers gave an entertainment in 
honor of the parents. On New Year's eve a box party and play were 
given at the school. Canning Clubs, Pig Clubs, and Corn Clubs have 
been keenly active from the first. 

Katie E. Sawyer, '15, is at Merritt, teaching first, second, and third 
grades. She lives in a teacher's cottage within thirty feet of her school- 
room. The principal and his family have the first floor, and Kate and 
the domestic science teacher occupy a suite of rooms upstairs and do 
light housekeeping. An effort is being made to locate a farm-life school 
here. The Betterment Association, of which Kate is president, has just 

Alumnae 61 

placed over one hundred new desks in the school. Recently a play was 
given to raise money to defray the expense and $25 was realized. Kate 
says "We can and will" pay the remaining $294 by the time school 
closes. That sounds like business. Go to it! She took a trip to New 
Bern, March 23d, to see the wonderful "Birth of a Nation." 

Ethel Perry, '13, intermediate grades, Pikeville, attended Mabel 
Lucas's ('13) wedding to Mr. Herbert S^vain, in Plymouth, April 24. 

Grace Bishop Dew, '11, Wilson, 215 W, JSTash St., spent Easter in 
Greenville, with relatives. 

Millie Roebuck, '15, Stokes, principal of a two-teacher school at 
Mason, Pitt County, taught a successful Moonlight School. She also 
organized a literary society in her school, with the patrons as honorary 
members. Just before the holidays "Bird's Christmas Carol" was given 
for the benefit of the school. The community Sunday Schools and 
singing classes were heartily supported. Millie's school was out early, 
^o she took a trip in April to Asheville, and from there to Hot Springs, 
Ark., to visit relatives. 

Mattie H. Bright, '14, Tarboro, R. F. D. No. 4, is now teaching at 
Leggett in No. 5 Consolidated School of Edgecombe County. There 
are four teachers in the school, one of whom is the music teacher. What 
easy work Mattie is having — only four grades ! Why can't she select 
a wider range of classes and get busy? But, then, athletics have been 
introduced into the school, and both boys and girls are very enthusiastic 
over the games, so perhaps they can keep her employed. The pupils go 
to school on wagons — some going a distance of five or six miles. They 
have heavy storm curtains for use in bad weather. The photographer 
took pictures of the building and wagons for exhibition not long ago. 

Willie Ragsdale, '12, and Blanche Lancaster, '14, were guests of honor 
at a reception in Smithfield. Tuesday evening, April 18th, when Mrs. 
T. J. Lassiter entertained. 

Margery Davis, '12, Tarboro, will change her address to Mrs. Carey 
Warren, Greenville, N. C, after June 1st. 

Ella May White, '15, Middletown, Lake Landing Graded School, first 
and second grades, is asistant in high school, also dra^^'ing in nine grades. 
This was the first attempt made by the school to install this subject as 
a part of the regular school course. Such splendid results were attained 
that much of the work was used in teachers' meetings. Every effort 

62 TiiK Training School Qlarterly 

available has beeu employed to secure the cooperation of the patrons of 
the school. Every Friday afternoon a i)ublic entertainment is given 
at the school building, and every one is urged to attend. The material 
for these programs is taken from regular school work. The new piano 
in the school has nearly been paid for through proceeds received from 
parties and entertainments of various kinds. Already Ella has dis- 
covered the "all too sad fact that school teachers never, never get rich." 

Carrie Manning, '14, of Parinelo, who has been teaching in Granville 
County, says Mr. Wright's commencement address, March 30, was the 
best thing that took place in her school this year. The address was pre- 
ceded by a picnic dinner, after which there was an entertainment, the 
big numbers on the progi'am being three dramatizations : "Sleeping 
Beauty," by primary grades; "Diddie Dumps and Tot," by the inter- 
mediate grades, and "The Song of Hiawatha," by grammar grades. 
Carrie was in Greenville for "Midsummer Night's Dream." 

Pearle Brown, '15, Farmville, is still working faithfully to improve 
and beautify the school grounds in connection with her agricultural 

Gladys M. Fleming, '14, will not be able to attend commencement this 
year as George Peabody vacation does not begin until June 15th. 
Gladys's address is 1901 Adelicie St., Nashville, Temi. 

Georgia L, Scott, '12, Cockeysville, Md., is teaching first and second 
grades in the Cockeysville public school, Baltimore County. A good 
account of the splendid county school system was given not long since 
in the Atlantic Educational Journal. A priniary supervisor and assist- 
ant visit the school at least once each mouth, oftener if needed. Es- 
pecially is this helpful to the new teacher. The grammar grades also 
have supervisors and assistants. Four teachers' meetings or grade 
meetings are held each year. All the teachers of a certain grade meet 
one day, and carry with them samples of work, graphs made from tests 
given, lesson plans, and new ideas, all of which are discussed. This 
keeps the teacher up to date and enthusiastic about her work. This 
year Georgia, in company with a group of other second-grade teachers, 
visited the schools in Washington, D. C. The school law requires every 
teacher to attend teachers' institute two weeks every fall, or a course in 
summer school every three years. There is a truant officer for the 
county. The county commissioners meet the first Wednesday of every 
month to discuss school conditions, signing of checks for teachers, and 
other business. The work for the school year follows a course of study 
that is worked out by the supervisors. Monthly plans are worked out 
from this book, a copy of which is sent to each teacher in the county, 

Alumna 63 

so all of the schools are teaching the same subjects for that mouth. 
Every summer the Cockeysville school takes part in the Chautauqua 
which is held there for several days. Georgia says the Quarterly is 
like an old friend to her, and she keeps in touch with the affairs of 
the school through it as a medium. 

Mary E. Weeks, '13, Graham, has only enrolled 94 boys and girls 
in the first grade this year. Can you imagine just how much time she 
has had for play! This up-to-date school was the first in the State to 
undertake the medical inspection the State Board wants done. Fewer 
defects were found here than in any other school in the county. The 
Graham boys basketball team beat the Burlington boys, 13 to 5, in a 
match game not long ago. Two Graham High School students won the 
cup at Chapel Hill in the debate this year. The ninth and tenth gi-ades 
gave an "at home" February 22d, in honor of the graded school teachers. 
The colonial idea was carried out in dress, amusements, and refreshments 
suggestive of Washington's birthday. Later the boys' literary society 
gave a party for the faculty. Mary spent Thanksgiving and Easter in 
Winston-Salem with her sister, Hattie. She made the trip each time 
through the country. Hattie missed a week or more from school on 
account of illness, and the school was afterwards closed for a week or 
more on account of scarlet fever. 

Lillie Freeman Hope, '13, Washington, and Master E. V. Hope, Jr., 
motored to Greenville recently with friends. 

Mrs. Hunter Fleming (Lillian Carr, '11), Kinston, and Mrs. Louis 
Gaylord (Mattie Moye King, '12), Plymouth, were in Greenville, April 
28th, to attend a wedding. 

Lula Fountain, '14, Bethel, gave the "Tom Thumb Wedding," using 
her children as principal characters, on Febiniary 21st. Later she 
superintended a party at which good things to eat were sold, and $2Q 
was realized. She is another of those lucky people who 'heard Farrar 
sing in Raleigh this winter. 

Emma J. Brown, '15, Pleasant Hill, after completing her work in the 
public schools, taught several months private school in the home of one 
of the school committeemen, whom she says is "next best man to Mr. 

Ha Bullock, '11, Lewiston, has won distinction in having made the 
highest average on entrance examinations to the High School Depart- 
ment in Bertie County. A new piano, auditorium chairs, lights, and 
new patent desks have been added to the school equipment this year. 

64 The Training School Quarterly 

Bettie Pearl Fleming, '13, Dunn, had a pU'asing exhibition of the 
work done by her grade in the Dunn graded school building when the 
room was open for public inspection on Ajiril 21st. 

Bessie Doub, '14, Wendell, gave a very successful play festival Friday, 
April 28th. 

Louie Dell Pittman, '12, Selma, recently spent the week end in Ayden 
with licr sister, Mrs, Jake Frizzelle. 

Emily W. Gayle, '14, spent the Easter holidays in Grifton with friends. 

Nell Pender, '11, Greenville, is housekeeping for her father. She 
visited Essie Ellington Fleming, '11, in Rocky Mount, in March. But 
best thing can be said about her is that her address is still Xell Pender, 

Lillie Tucker, '11, Winten'ille, visited relatives in Greenville and 
attended the Helen Keller address May 3d. 

Essie Ellington Fleming, '11, Rocky Mount, and Master Ernest I. 
Fleming, Jr., visited the latter's grandparents in Greenville during the 
first week of May. 

Maude Anderson, '15, Goldsboro, is teaching fourth, fifth, and sixth 
grades in Falling Creek High School, one of the three rural State high 
schools in the county of Wayne. A "Current Events Club" has been 
organized and proved very helpful. There are three basketball teams 
in the school. The moonlight school was very successful, and the pupils 
proved to be very appreciative. Tomato, Com, Pig, and Poultry clubs 
are in fine working order. 

The annual meeting of the Alumnse Association will be held at East 
Carolina Teachers Training School at 10 a. m. on Tuesday, June 6tli. 
The Alumupp Dinner will be hold in Dining Hall of the school at 8 p. m. 
on June 6th. 


President Louise Smaw 

Vice-President Lela Durham 

Secretary Lida Taylor 

Treasurer Alma Spivey 

Critic Hattie Turner 

Historian Sallie Lassiter 

Class Adviser: Miss Daisy Bailey Waitt. 
Motto: Loyal in everything. 
Flower: Nasturtium. 

Psychological Soundings of Seniors 

The Class of 1916 is fortunate to exist in an age wlien it has been 
discovered that it is possible to look into and judge the future by present 
tendencies. Since we know that all classes are composed of psycho- 
physical organisms, we have only to judge the members according to 
psychology, or pedagogy, and see what each will naturally follow if left 
to go the way of least resistance. 

A complete psychological and pedagogical, not to say physiological, 
surv^ey has been made of the Class of 1916 and the results are given 
below. The number of principles applied can be tabulated according 
to the numbers given. 

1. Since after a habit is formed it is hard to break, when women are 
allowed to vote, Lucile O'Brien's habit of holding office at school will 
lead her to a place of prominence. 

2. If a quiet manner on the part of the teacher means good discipline, 
the schools cannot afford to give up Louise Stalvey. 

3. If Allen Gardner follows the line of least resistance, whenever two 
or thi-ee of any kind are gathered together, she will continue to form 
organizations and associations. 

4. If all knowledge is dependent upon imagination, then Selma Ed- 
monson has sufficient material to base a goodly store of knowledge on. 

66 J" UK Training School Quarterly 

5. Viola Gaskins has set up for her aim "to lielp Mr. Wilson solve the 
Farai Problem." Since he has helped her to know "how to study" a 
problem, we feel assured that she eaii organize the factors that help 
toward its solution, and that her judgment will lead her to success, 

6. Mary Secrest's realization that the teaching process involves both 
child and subject-matter, added to her great love and knowledge of both, 
makes it her work to do all in her power to bring them into their i)roper 

7. With Myra Fleming's well developed altruistic instinct, we predict 
for her a work in which a great supply of friends instead of money 
will be needed, 

8. The three types of the expressive instinct, drawing and visual and 
auditory language, are prominent in the class: 

(a) Trilby Smith, by combining the teachings of the president of her 
school and her power to draw, will do well at designing more standard 
styles for women that would hold good for at least twelve years, 

(b) Georgia Keene's visual language has been so thoroughly trained 
by reporting for newspapers she would not do herself justice if she failed 
to continue to report whatever she sees and hears in the future. We are 
glad she is a truthful member of the class, and that "accuracy always'' 
is the motto of the aspiring young journalist, 

(c) There are two distinct methods of developing the auditory lan- 
guage presented by two members : 

(1) Alma Spivey, by much drill and by past experience, has speaking 
on the automatic basis and will find the lecture method of teaching best 
suited for her. 

(2) On the other hand, this instinct has been so long suppressed by 
Ava Graver we feel sure it must come forth some day. We cannot create 
any image of the results as we cannot reach the mind to 5ee what Ava 
is quietly collecting therein ; nor does she give us any basis for imagining 
what stimuli will call forth the rich store. 

9. Katherine Parker's ample proportions and rosy cheeks tell us that 
she has developed the feeding instinct upon a scientific basis, and we are 
thankful for her good nature that will necessitate her sharing this knowl- 
edge with others by teaching domestic science. We are glad to assure 
her that she needs no further advertisement than her own looks. 

10. If idealistic imitation and deep interest are guides, Louise Smaw 
will follow the footsteps of her primary methods or geography teacher. 

11. Martha Lancaster, her classmates say, has so many lines of non- 
resistance it is difficult to predict which she will follow. At present it 
seems as if the road leading to playground work and public school music 
is the most obvious way. 

12. If nothing prevents, the hereditary tendencies of Eimice Vause 
will, in time, lead her to Ireland, especially if continually stimulated by 
the praise of those ancestors by her history teacher. 

Class ok 1916 67 

13. Is it the love of approbation that keeps Fannie Lee Patrick con- 
tinually arranging her curly locks and keeping her dimples in place? 
If so, success must come from such a frequent repetition, and our ques- 
tion is, "Whose approval does she desire," 

14. Naomi Dail has, up to this time, been constructing ideas carefully 
and considerately in her quiet way. She has not even dropped a hint 
as to how she shall use them, and she thereby holds our interest by 

15. Anna Whitehurst's recreation tells us what she wishes to become. 
Pier enjoyment of her rhythmical and graceful dancing makes us hope 
that she'll teach others such valuable recreation. 

16. The rhythmic and aesthetic instincts are too prominent and the 
appeal too great for Gladys Warren to refuse her place among musicians. 
This is portrayed by Gladys's warning word, "Listen," at every sound 
of music. 

17. Marguerite Wallace's musical power and her general leadership 
fit her for the position of musical director. 

18. If the experienced teacher is still in demand, Lalla Wynne has the 
advantage of valuable experience in the first grade. Jobs should be hers 
even before the asking. 

19. Marjorie Pratt has practiced story-telling so much and so well that 
we hope she will turn this evil habit to good by adapting and using these 
stories where they will be of benefit to teachers and children. 

20. We are glad to have one person in which the collecting instinct 
is prominent, and accompanied by the love of wi'iting, and we would be 
glad to get a book entitled "Julia Eankin's collections." 

21. For yet another we advise music — Janet Matthews' love for the 
beautiful and her skill in playing fit her for a music teacher. She proves 
that a person does not have to be large to bring big tones from a piano. 

22. We advise Gertrude Boney, with her well developed morals and 
high standards of right, to set these standards constantly before the 
people, perhaps, as a Y. W. C. A. worker, or as a teacher. 

23. While taking the part of a lion in "Midsummer Night's Dream," 
Bloomer Vaughan displayed such a gentle and conscientious nature that 
we advise her to do something better suited to her gentleness, and not 
continue telling stories with Marjorie Pratt. But a mighty good Brer 
Rabbit will be lost. 

24. If it is possible for the study of a country to create a desire to 
visit that country, Sophia Mann will lead a group of the third grade 
from the model school to Japan. With her love for roaming we cannot 
say where her wanderings will finally end. 

25. Lida Taylor's nature also was revealed during "Midsummer 
Night's Dream." She proved to us when playing "Puck" that she could 
never be pessimistic, but happy and joyous at all times. What better 

68 The Training School Quarterly 

traits could we desire to be taken into a community for developing tlie 
true community spirit ? She expresses one play instinct. 

26. The play instinct is developed along still another line. Ella 
Bonner shows tendencies toward combining work and play, thus having 
the ideal conditions for work. Whether her school be a one-teacher or 
college, it will stand out prominently because of its playground achieve- 

27. A study of morals is portrayed in Dinabel Floyd's faithfulness to 
small things. We turn kindergartens over to her. 

28. According to Elizabeth Southerland's expressed wish, her love for 
amusement and dance, and her pretended dislike for cares and serious- 
ness, there could be but one life for her, the society life. However, 
according to our own acquaintance with Elizabeth, we know she would 
be far happier in helping others, perhaps in directing amusements and 
pastimes for others, coaching plays, for instance. 

29. Hattie Turner's curiosity decides her course. It has kept her in 
the library at play time and work time, deafening her to the sounds of 
bells, but has ended by giving her a power in the library that will fit her 
for the work she'll like, a librarian. We hope she will awaken the 
public schools of N'orth Carolina to see the true values of libraries. 

30. With Mary Smith's desire to sing and be merry we could wish 
nothing better for her than that the public will appreciate her voice as 
much as her voice teacher does. 

31. There seems but one course for Susie Morgan to pursue that will 
give her powers full play. Her own expressed desires to become a mov- 
ing picture actress and writer of scenarios go hand in hand with her love 
for dramatics and quick movements. 

32. Dramatics should guide Alice Herring to direct others along that 
line or to the further development of herself. But to Alice all roads 
seem open. She will be the well-rounded woman whatever she does. 

33. Voluntary imitation is perhaps the cause of Lola Brinson's habit- 
ual neatness. Whatever the cause, we hope she will lead others to imitate 
her. There is a great work for her in teaching people to use such designs 
as Trilby is to provide. 

34. Was it her course in home nursing here that aroused the sympa- 
ties of Katherine White and directed her thoughts toward becoming a 

trained nurse? 

35. Jessie Daniel judges from her observation that there is a great 
need for better "Math" teaching, and has begun hor work by coaching 
less fortunate classmates. With such a beginning, Avho can tell where 
it will end? 

36. Annie Bishop, on the other hand, has felt this need for "Math" 
teaching, by past experience, and says it is vital enough to her to assure 
her aid in securing as great a power in the subject as her now more 
fortunate classmate. 

Class of 1916 69 

37. With her great feeling for history, Sallie Lassiter cannot see it 
taught in the future as in the past, as a dead, lifeless subject. Her love 
for it, and her wit, will make the subject real and live to her pupils as 
together they connect the old with the new. 

38. The pedagogy of jSTelle White's interest must be either based on 
environment or the recapitulation theory, and since environment has 
more certain and unchangeable effects we know that it is the power at 
work here. ISTelle delights in the sports that water can afford and 
wishes to teach others the pleasures of and rowing. 

39. Susie Barnes has numerous qualities that fit her for her preferred 
work of training orphan classes. Her warm heart, deep sympathy, 
cheerful, bright disposition, and desire to teach are all to her credit. 

40. J^ellie Dunn's individual notions are unnumbered. We hope that 
memory will continue to retain them all until she is ready to found her 
general notions. If so, her store cannot be surpassed by any of her 

41. To see Jessamine Ashley cling to her broom and dustpan, and to 
know the energy and time she gives to making her room a pleasing per- 
spective is proof enough that Jessamine wants to be a teacher of good 

42. Does the natural way in which Euth Brown has once acted the 
part as leader of revels mean that it will continue to be so natural? 

43. Is it curiosity that leads Eva Pridgen to ponder the "Why" o£ 
facts ? We learn that the psychological way to study is to get the mean- 
ing of statements instead of bare facts. Then why does this not mean 
that Eva Pridgen will get something that is really worth while from her 
loved subject, chemistry. 

44. Pedagogy teaches us that all questions are valuable except the 
suggestive questions. We are inclined to think that Ruby Vann is soon 
going to attach an importance to that unpedagogical kind, the "yes" or 
"no" question. 

Prom the above characterization one cannot help noticing the striking 
individuality of the girls. jSTo two are alike. Each stands out indi- 
vidually, seeming to make a disunited class; but no. There is a tie 
that binds. One instinct is common to them all, and is developed as 
unitedly as in one individual. This is the social instinct. It creates 
that strong desire "to serve." It unites them all in a bond that is "Loyal 
in everything." It ties them to their school and to each other, and, 
though soon to be separated and follow their own individual paths, we 
see them often guided by their common instinct, back to one general 
path leading to their own Alma Mater. 

Martha Lancaster. 

70 The Training School Quarterly 

Senior Slips 

L. T. : "Who wrote Dr. Strayer ?" 

S. M. (at drug store) : "Please fill this subscription." 

M, S. : "I have just had such a fuuny letter from my sister and she 
sent me some bobs" (meaning chewing gum). 
]Sr. W. : "Where do you wear them ?" 

Miss L. : "In drawing Japanese parasols, what principle do we 

stress ?" 

G. W. : "The eclipse/' 

L. T, (to merchant) : "Have you any variated ties?" 

E. S. (to E. B.) : "Please lend me some divisible hairpins." 

L. W. (in Science) : "Has that soil got any 'humorous' in it?" 

Mr. M.: "What is a ditty?" 
Miss S. : "Oh, its a herring." 

A. S. made a poster to use in illustrating her reading lesson. Wishing 
the approval of the critic-teacher she said, "Miss M., how does my 
postal look?" 

"Miss K., will you scan the first stanza?" 

Miss K. began rattling off the lines by heart, and was later shocked 
when she found scanning and memorizing were not synonymous. 

Marguerite Wallace. 

Class of 1916 


Pictures and Quotations. 

Louise Shaw — "True she is, as she hath proved herself." 
Lela Durham — "Of good repute, carriage, bearing, and estimation." 
LiDA Taylor — "To me, fair friend, you never -wiW grow old." 
Alma Spivey — "I do profess to be no less than I seem." 

Susie Morgan — "All the world is a stage and the men and women merely players." 
Mary Smith — "Ho.y, fair, and wise is she." 
Jessamine Ashley — "Ask me what you will, I will grant it." 
Annie Bishoi — "I of him -will gather patience." 

Mar(Rieritk W.Ki.UMK — ''She excels each mortal thing upon this dull earth dwelling." 
Lalla Wynne — "All that life can rate worth name of life, in thee hath estimate." 
DiNABEL Floyd — "The truth, sir, and she is pretty, and honest, and sentle ; and one that is 
your friend." 

Sophia Mann — "Her voice was ever soft, gentle, and low; an excellent thing in a woman." 


TiiK I'kaimm; Sciiooi. (Jiaktkui.y 

Rl'TH Hkowx — "I liiul latluT have a fool to make inc merry than expeiieiiee to make me sad." 
Nellk \Vhitk — "Thou liai-t the sweetes-t face I ever looked on." 

Geori;i.\ Kkkxe — "Your face . . . . i.s a book where men may read strange matters." 
Myka Fle.mixi; — "How far that little candle throws its beam.s! So shines a good deed in a 
naughtv world." 

H.\TTIK TiRXKR — "I would rather hear my dot; bark at a crow than a man swear he loves im 
LoL.\ Brix.-;ox — "The course of true love never did run smooth." 
Lucille O'Briak — "She is fair and fairer than that word, of wondrous virtue." 
Faxxie Lee P.vtruk — "The worst fault you have is to be in love." 

Viola Gaskix.s — "So turns the every man the wrong side out." 

Eunice Vause — "He that is thy friend indeed, He will help thee in thy need." 

Bloomer Vaughx — "You are full of pretty answers." 

JES.SIE Daniel — "As I have ever found thee, honest — true. ' 

( 'l.ASS ()!■■ Ill Hi 


Alice Herrinc — ''Titled goddess and worth it with addition." 

Mary Skckest — "Thou hast a mind that suit with this, thy fair and outward cliaracter." 
AvA Graver — ^"I know not what the success will be, my lord, but the attempt I avow.'' 
Elizabeth Southerland — "She's a fair creature." 

Sallie Lassiter — ''Beshrew my heart, but I pity the man.'' 

Marth.^ Lancaster — "Yes, I do know him well, and common speech gives him a worthy 

Louise Stalvey — "A kind overflow of kindness.'' 
Eva Pridgen — ''She never knew harm doing." 


I «i 




Nell Dl'X.N" — "lie jest.- at scar.s tliat never fell a wound.' 
Selma Edml'Ndsox — "Loving goes by hopes; some cupid kills witli arrows, some with tropes." 
CtLAUYS Warrkx — "Beauty and honor in her are so mingled." 

Trilhv Smith — "I count m.x'.se'.f in notliini;- so happy, as in a soul remembering my good 

- r 


TlIK ri!AlM.\(; Scilool. (^)rAlI TKIil.V 

Ruby Vaxx — ''Good words are better tlian bad stroke!-. '" 

Katherixe Parker — "Tliere is notliins I liave done yet o' my conscience deserves a corner.' 
Julia Rakkin — "Tlie honor of a maid is Iht n.nnc. .iinl no l("_';iiy is >o rich as honesty." 
Katherine White — "Do you not know I am a woman ; When I think I must speak." 

Anna WiriTKJirRST — "For slie tliat liad all the fair ])arts of woman, had. too. a woman' 

Marjorik Pratt — "Whose nature is so far from doing harm that he suspects none." 
K.\o.Ml Dail — "I love not many words." 
Allen Gardner — "There you shall see a countrxnian of \ours that has done worthy service.' 

Gertrude Boney — "The most virtuous gentlewoman tliat ever Nature had pi-aise for creatine 

Susie Barnes — "She is never sad but when she .sleeps." 

Ella Bonner — "Young in limbs, in .iudgment old." 

Janet Matthews — "If music be the food of love, play on." 

Class of 1916 


Chronicles of the Class of 1916 

E, the Class of 1916, who are about to complete our 
school career at East Carolina Teachers Training 
School, feel that we should leave a complete record 
of all our deeds before going hence. The Quar- 
terly is the treasure house for all the archives of 
the school; hence this seems the best place for 
filing these records. 

Miss Waitt has been our faithful class adviser 
for all four years. Today, the class has forty- 
nine members standing together, with Louise Smaw as President; Lela 
Durham, Vice-President; Lida Taylor, Secretary; Alma Spivey, Treas- 
urer; Hattie Turner, Critic, and Sallie Lassiter, Historian. 

The Class of 1916 was organized ]^ovember, 1912. We then had 
thirty-two members. At first we felt weak, as we were all young, and 
we were the smallest class here, but it was not long before we fell in line 
and went to work with determination to succeed in school activities. We 
did not accomplish very much in comparison with what the upper classes 
were doing. But we did organize our class and soon had a basketball 
team and tennis team. We enjoyed watching other classes that were 
older and more experienced than we, and taking lessons to put into 
practice later. 

In the fall of 1913 we were ready for work. Our number was in- 
creased to forty-four, with Gladys Warren, President; Nellie Dunn, 
Vice-President; Martha Lancaster, Secretary; Clyde Eeid, Treasurer, 
and Elsie Brantley, Council Member. We started to work. We played 
a match game of basketball with the Juniors on Thanksgiving. We were 
the first and only "B" class that has played in a match game of basket- 
ball in this school. 

As we knew how to sympathize with the "A" class we decided to en- 
tertain them just before commencement, and welcome them to our place 
in the school as "B's." The entertainment was of a very informal 
nature. We first played games, such as Virginia Eeel, Cross-Question, 
etc. Then a contest was held, the prize being a bottle of honey from 
the "Busy Bees." This was won by Hallie Jones, of the "A" class. 
Later refreshments were served. 

When we returned in the fall of 1915 nearly every new girl we met said 
she was going to be in the Junior Class. We found we had ninety-six 
members, the largest class that has ever been in this school. Two large 
sections of Juniors, with Alice Herring, President; Eunice Vause, Vice- 
President; Jessie Daniels, Secretary; Nellie Dunn, Treasurer; Julia 
Eankin, Critic; Trilby Smith and Susie Morgan, Council Members. 

76 Thk Training School Quaktkrly 

As this wa^ our first year as a member of one of the professional classes, 
we entered into our work with a great cleul of interest and enthusiasm. 
We played in the basketball tournament and lost to the Seniors. Still 
we did not give up, and when the time came for the tennis tournament we 
won all three games. Two members of our class, Lucile O'Brian and 
Allen Gardner, were the champions in tennis. A member of our class, 
Lillian Page, was the champion walker of the school. As a result of 
all this we won the Athletic Loving Cup, wliich is given for the most 
points in all forms of athletics except basketball. As it is a custom 
for the Juniors to entertain the Seniors, we decided to give them a 
Japanese party out on the campus, but on account of the critical condi- 
tion of Governor Jarvis we were delayed in our plans, and finally gave 
up the idea of doing this. We gave, instead, a reception indoors during 
the last week of school. 

This year of our Lord 1916 has been a busy year with us, and this is 
the first chance we have had to glance back over the past and see what 
Ave really have done. 

The first thing we did after we had settled down was to organize our- 
selves into a Story-Telling League. As many as four girls have told 
stories every Saturday afternoon to the children of Greenville, at the 
public library. At the head of this league there is a committee com- 
posed of Georgie Keene, Chainuan ; Alma Spivey, and Bloomer Vaughan. 

On the day which had been proclaimed as "Moonlight School Day" by 
the Governor, a j)rogram was given by the following members of our 
class: Mary Secrest, Eunice Yause, Alma Spivey, and Sallie Lassiter. 
A playground demonstration was given by our class to the Pitt 
County schools. All the games played were suitable for primary and 
grammar grades. During a school year each class is supposed to conduct 
the Assembly exercises, so we decided to use Lincoln's birthday for our 
date. Nellie Dunn, Susie Barnes, Gladys Warren, Janet Matthews, 
Bloomer Vaughan, Alice Herring, and Georgie Keene took a prominent 
part in this program, with songs by the class appropriate for the date. 

It has been the custom since 1913 for each Senior Class to plant some 
tree on the campus. This year, instead of just giving one or two trees, 
we decided to plant sixteen Lombardy poplar trees, which will always 
be a symbol of the class of 1916. 

What we consider the greatest and most important thing we have ever 
done was to present to the public on April 10th "A Midsummer Night's 
Dream." This is given in detail under another head in this issue of 
the Quarterly. 

On the night of April 14th we were given a reception by our President 
and his wife, Mr. Wright and Mrs. Wright. This reception is always 
one of the Seniors' most enjoyable events of the year. Another enjoy- 
able event was a reception given by the Juniors on May 8th, in honor 
of the Seniors. 

Class of 1916 77 

All tlie above events may seem small, but with these and our work and 
our practice teaching at the Model School wc have spent a very busy 
four years. 

Those who can read between the lines can understand the amount of 
work, the joy, the hopes and fears of all these years, and the triumphant 
feeling we have at the end that the authorities are ready to bestow upon 
us the concrete evidence of "Well done, good and faithful servants," 
diplomas duly signed and sealed. 

Sallie Lassiter, Historian. 

Prospective vs. Actual Teachers 


Rising Action. 

Place : Primary Methods Classroom, East Carolina Teachers Train- 
ing School, Greenville, IST. C. 
Date: October 1, 1915. 

Personnel : Miss B, Director of Practice Teaching at Model School. 
Enthusiastic Seniors, starting out on their brilliant career of teaching. 

Miss B. : "Now, girls, as you all know, teaching is an eternal joy, a 
daily inspiration. You are starting out on your teaching career with a 
sufficient amount of past experience to enable you to carry out these 
suggestions : 

"In your teaching follow these instructions in Pedagogy: 

(1) "Aim, supplementing, organization, judging, comparison, getting 
and using of ideas. 

(2) "Get the child's knowledge on a 'Habit Basis.' 

(3) "Give children opportunities for free expression of their thoughts, 

(4) "Show pupils that you have confidence in them and trust them. 
"Then heed the advice in History, which is : The teacher's knowledge 

should always exceed that of the pupil's. Kemember these helpful 
precepts in Geography: 

(1) "Be sure your pupils always have a clear conception of ideas. 

(2) "Train your pupils to say exactly what they mean. 

"■Don't forget the Grand Opera Training you got in singing, such as : 

(1) "Teacher should always start the song right the first time. 

(2) "Give songs that correspond with the time of the year. 

(3) "Make your songs real. 

"Last, but not least, follow these few suggestions which I have to 

(1) "Learn your children and their different instincts and notice par- 
ticularly the dramatic instinct and use it whenever possible. 

(2) "Notice the imitative instinct in regard to the English you use. 

(3) "Throw in plenty of rest periods which are full of action. 

78 The Training School Quarterly 

(4) ''Never, never fail to see where work can be correlated and where 

past expcM-ieiices must be called up. 

"We Avill now go to our respective grades and get down to hard work." 
(Girls depart, talking and excited, all anxious to get to the Model 



Action in Full Sway. 

Place: Model School, 

Time : 9 a. m., two weeks later. 

Air full of excitement. Shuffling of lesson plans from critic-teacher to 
pupil-teacher. Sweet and melodious music can be heard in different 
rooms furnished by the trembling knees of the pupil-teachers, which are 
playing "I Need Thee Every Hour." Strange sounds can be heard 
from the basement, which might be alarming if one didn't know it was 
nothing but different girls teaching their lessons to the four comers 
of the room. 

Passing from room to room one can hear these remarks : 

Pupil-Teacher (to pupils finishing Reading lesson) : "Now, children, 
please put your hooks in your seat and your head in your desk." (Prin- 
ciple: train your pupils always to say exactly what they mean.) 

P.-T.: "What is an ocean?" 

Walter : "A great big hole of water." (Principle : clear conception 
of ideas.) 

P.-T. (who had taught maps for two weeks) : "Children, what is our 
reading lesson about today?" 

Chorus: "Maps.'- (Principle: habit basis.) 

P.-T. (day after circus) : "Children, I want each of you to tell me 
something you saw at the circus. John, you may begin" — and John 
talked the entire period. (Principle: development of free expression.) 

Jack (to pupil-teacher) : "Miss , I'll always remember you." 

P.-T.: "Why?" 

Jack: "Because you look just like a Japan." (Teacher had just 
finished working out a Japanese pageant.) (Principle: association.) 

P.-T. (after having written the words on the board) : "Get out your 
spelling pads and I will trust you not to look at the board during this," 
(While teacher was talking she unconsciously rubbed the words off,) 
(Principle: trust your pupils.) 

P,-T, (during a reading lesson) : "What does persuaded mean?" 

Pupil : "Like the people did at the camp meeting this summer, when 
they sang "Almost Persuaded." (Principle: association.) 

P.-T, (teaching geography) : "William, did you visit the Insane 
Asylum when you were in Raleigh ?" 

William : "Yes." 

P.-T. : "Tell us what you saw." 

William: "A lot of women," 

Class of 1916 79 

Charles (after Japanese pageant) : "Miss , don't you think 

our pageant was good enough for Mr. Sam White to put on the picture 
screen ?" 

P.-T. (teaching Marquette) : "Marquette was one of the first white 
men to come to this country." 

Pupil : "Didn't John Smith come before he did ?" 

Teacher (turning red): "I don't know." (Principle: teacher'3 
knowledge should exceed that of the pupil.) 

Falling Action. 

Place : Same as Scene I. 

Time : 11 :45, one week later. 

Downcast Seniors, ready to end life, some gazing at the electric light 
bulbs, some at the blackboard, some looking at the scenery out the 
window, all avoiding the teacher's eye. 

Miss B. : "Of course, girls, we all got on nicely with our work, but — " 

Exclamations from girls : "Oh, Miss B., I've failed." "I'll never be 
able to teach!" "I don't love children." "I can't put into practice the 
things I learn up here." "I'm a perfect bone-head." "I believe teaching 
one large one is better than thirty-six small ones." "I can't teach sing- 
ing without a 'pitch pipe.' " 

Miss B. : "Never mind, we all make mistakes. Now let's talk over 
our mistakes and see where we can correct them, for you know our fail- 
ures may be turned into successes." 

Girls (greatly relieved) : "Please give us another chance and we 

will do better." n.-r -nr .^^ 

Marguerite Wallace. 

LiDA Taylor. 

Susie T. Morgajst. 

Learning to Teach Music 

Just as the girls did their practice teaching at the Model School, just 
so did the girls who were taking music do their practice teaching in 
music. Before a professional student is allowed to take music, she must 
have to her credit a certain amount of work in music, and is required 
to continue it until she completes the course in music. This makes 
music equal to the other subjects in the course. 

Each student-teacher of music teaches one pupil for one term. A 
part of the teaching is done under the supervision of the critic-teacher, 
and the other part of the teaching the practice teachers are thrown on 
their own responsibility. One of the regular music lessons each week 
is devoted to a discussion of plans for teaching the lesson and the 
progress of the pupil. Eor the first two or three lessons the plans are 
submitted to the teacher's criticism. After that the practice teachers 

80 The Training School Quakteelt 

not only make their own plans, but also criticize them. The other 
lesson in each week is devoted to the student-teacher's actual technical 
work in music. 

Just as you have problems to face and solve in actual teaching, just 
so you have them in teaching music. One of the greatest problems that 
confronts a music teacher is how to induce a child to practice. Often 
the child comes to his lesson and announces the fact that his practice 
period has been only one-half hour since the previous lesson ; and when 
this confession is not made the music lessons show that conditions are 
even worse. Then the perplexed teacher suddenly finds herself trying 
to answer the question, "How shall I motivate the practicing of this 
child?" The teacher gives the pupil suggestions as to the best hours for 
practice, and tries to lead the child to see the importance of practicing 
by hammering in him concrete illustrations. The student-teacher leads 
the child to see that even in the case of a baseball or basketball player, 
an unlimited amount of practice is necessary, in order that the player 
may accomplish anything. One student-teacher was half amused, half 
vexed, one day when her pupil told her that his only reason for practic- 
ing was to become "so skilled" that he could play in an orchestra the 
next summer. She readily saw that her ways of motivation had not 
been alive to the child. 

In trying to get a good hand position on the piano, the pupil's fingers 
can be compared with "little soldiers." A music teacher must remember 
that she should use little devices to illustrate to the pupil what she wants 
him to get; these should appeal to the nature and age of the child; 
whether her pupil is a boy or a girl determines the nature of the de- 
vices used. 

If there is one single thing to be .stressed in teaching music, especially 
with a beginner, it is to make music mean something to the child. So 
many music teachers think that the technical side of music should be the 
foremost thought in teaching it. Not so, for unless a child really gets 
some thought or meaning from his music (as in reading or any subject) 
he will never reach the point of real appreciation of music. From ob- 
servation, student-teachers have learned that even the youngest pujnl 
has some power of interpretation. One of the student-teachers asked 
her pupil what he thought was meant by the piece "Merry Bobolink." 
The pupil said it was written about the bird, bobolink, and he even 
selected the measures that to him said "spink, spank, spink." This 
shows that music can be made to mean something to the child, even in 
the case of an easy composition. 

The teacher found that she should, in the beginning, try to train the 
pupil's ear to distinguish between harsh and mellow tones. By striking 
one or two notes with a difference in their tones, she let the pupil detect 
the mellow tones; especially did she stress this in scale work. One of 

Class of 1916 81 

the pupils suggested one day that ''good tones sounded like they were 
struck by clean-kept finger^." 

One other thing this student-teacher discovered was that recitals 
furnish good motives for children to put forth effort in their music; 
generally they think it great to take part in a program, and will double 
their efforts if given such an opportunity. 

Memory work in music is an important phase of the work, and should 
be heartily encouraged by the teacher. One child motivated memory 
work herself when she told the following incident to her teacher. She 
was asked to play for her mother's guest one day, and didn't have her 
music with her, so she played one piece from memory. When she had 
finished telling her teacher about it, she said, "ISTow, see if I hadn't 
known that piece by heart, I couldn't have played for those folks." 
After a child has memorized a piece it means so much more to him, and 
his music becomes a pleasure instead of a burden. 

It is hoped that the above experiences and discoveries of the student- 
teachers may serve as a sympathetic word to the young teacher who has 

similar problems to solve. -r ,^ 

Janet Matthews. 

Gladys Warren. 
Senior Luncheon 

The climax of the year's work in the cooking class comes in the last 
term when the Seniors give a series of luncheons, which are a test of 
what they have assimilated during the year. 

The class, which this year numbers forty-eight, is divided into groups 
of three, making sixteen groups. Each group is required to plan, pre- 
pare, and serve a full meal for six people at a cost of $1.25. The plan- 
ning of the meal gives an opportunity to each student for judging food 
values, cost of articles, and time for preparation. The students keep a 
market price list and are required to work out the cost of each recipe. 
When they begin adding it up, to their surprise it always amounts to 
more than the allowance. It is positively painful to some girls when 
they have to reject attractive recipes and select less expensive ones. 
These menus, with calculations of time for preparation and cost, are 
presented to the teacher, she approves or disapproves and gives the 
allowance of money. They take this and go to the local stores to pur- 
chase their materials at retail price, just as any housekeeper does. The 
clerks often smile when they ask for 2 cents worth of nuts, 5 cents worth 
of tomatoes and 5 cents worth of potatoes, and so on. 

In order to give the students practice in preparing and serving meals 
before they give their meals to guests, the cla^s cooks and serves three 
type meals — breakfast, luncheon, and dinner. In this work the class is 
divided into three groups, and one group cooks the meal, another group 
sets the table and serves, while the other group is acting as the guests. 


Tjie TkaiiNINo School Quarterly 

This is rotated during the three type meals, in this way each member 
gets practice in every phase of the work. 

There is much rivalry between the groups as to the attractiveness of 
their meals. Some of them search in the woods for various kinds of 
flowers, as dogwood, yellow jessamine, honeysuckle and woodbine, while 
others use the flowers on the campus — sweet peas, roses, tulips, nastur- 
tiums, buttercups, and others. Each group tries to get something differ- 
ent. Many of the place cards are made to harmonize with the flowers 
used in the center of table. Some of them are conventional designs, and 
others the natural form of the flower painted on the cards. 

After everything has been prepared and the guests have arrived, one 
of the girls presides at the table, another serves, while the third one 
remains in the kitchen to dish up the food and have it ready. In the 
meantime the hostess is striving to keep up a live and interesting con- 
versation. Her chief ambition is to be natural, and her greatest fear is 
that things will appear stiff, but the guests always enjoy these meals. 
The guests are members of the faculty, friends in town and members 
from some other classes. 

In this work the girls learn many principles of housekeeping. Food 
values, best methods of marketing, preparation of foods, table require- 
ments, details of serving and general care of kitchen and dining-room 
are topics which receive special attention. 

The Senior Class this year served their luncheons in the hall of the 
Domestic Science laboratory. They have been served heretofore in the 
Cabin, but while the Cabin is picturesque and has been the scene of 
many attractive luncheons, the Domestic Science room is much more 
convenient in every respect. 

Given below are some typical menus: 


Post Toasties 





Sally Lunn Muffin 




Asparagus Soup 


Baked Fish 


Boiled C; 





Ice Tea 





Baked Chicken 


Creamed Potatoes 

Parker House Rolls 

Fruit Salad 



Vanilla Ice-cream 

Sponge Cake 

Kathkrine Parker. 

Class of 1916 83 

Senior Play 

On the evening of April 10th the Senior Class presented "A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream." Miss Daisy Bailey Waitt, adviser of the 
class, was director of the play, and not only did all the coaching, but 
Avas at the head of all the other work. 

Miss Louise Smaw, as president of the class, was an ex ojficio member 
of all committees, and helped to keep everything working harmoniously. 

Mendelssohn's "Midsummer Night's Dream" music was used through- 
out the play. Miss Sherman played all the incidental music, the music 
for the dances, and "The Scherzo." Miss Fahnestock played the "Over- 
ture," "The Nocturne," "The Wedding March," and "Intermezzo." 
Three members of the Hagedorn orchestra, of Kaleigh, helped with the 
music. Mr. Koyster played the cello, Mr. Smith the violin, and Mr. 
Weatherall the flute. Miss Muffly directed the choruses. The interpre- 
tative dances added greatly to the beauty of the play. These were the 
faun dance, the fairy dances and the tree-heart dance. The clown dance 
was one of the best things in the play. The clown dance was directed 
by Miss Muffly. Miss Euth Lee, of Kaleigh, trained the others. 

The scenery used was that which was presented to the school by the 
Class of 1914, a Greek interior and a wood scene, which were ideal for 
the play. This was supplemented by vines, trees and bowers artistically 
arranged. The staging committee was : Eunice Vause, chairman ; Louise 
Stalvey, Alma Spivey, Katherine White. Misses Graham, Strong, and 
Morris of the faculty worked with this committee and rendered valuable 
service to the class through their helpful advice. 

Costumes for the principals were rented from a professional costumer. 
Most of the costumes were designed and made under the direction of 
Miss Martha Armstrong, teacher of Domestic Science. Members of the 
class on the Costume Committee were: Dinabel Floyd, chairman; Anna 
Whitehurst, Myra Fleming. Miss Annie McCowen rendered valuable 
service to this committee in helping to make the costumes. 

Each member of the class made an attractive poster under the direc- 
tion of Miss Kate Lewis, teacher of drawing. The poster committee 
was : Lalla Wynne, chairman. Trilby Smith, Hattie Turner. The 
posters were turned over to the advertising committee, which had charge 
of all printing and publicity work. The members of this committee 
were: Georgia Keene, chairman; Jessie Daniel. Lela Durham. They 
worked under the direction of Miss Jenkins, of the English department. 

The marshals for the play were : Julia Rankin, chief ; Trilby Smith, 
Nell Dunn, Louise Stalvey, Ella Bonner, Lucilc O'Brian, Nelle White, 
Sophia Mann. 

Louise Smaw, president of the class, and Georgia Keene, chairman of 
ad-\'ei"tising committee, sold tickets. 

84 The Training School Quarterly 

The satisfaction of the public and the favorable opinions expressed 
were very gratif^ang to the class. 

The cast of characters was as follows : 

Theseus, Duke of Athens Martha Lancaster 

Egeus, father to Hermia Gertrude Boney 

Lysander, betrothed to Hermia Lola Brinson 

Demetrius, once suitor to Helena, now in love with Hermia.. ..Susie Barnes 

Philostrate, master of revels to Theseus Ruth Brown 

Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons, betrothed to Theseus Sallie Lassiter 

Hermia, daughter to Egeus, betrothed to Lysander Alice Herring 

Helena, in love with Demetrius Gladys Warren 

Mechanics performing in the interlude: 

Quince, a carpenter Katharine Parker 

Bottom, a weaver Susie Morgan 

Flute, a bellows-mender Allen Gardner 

Snout, a tinker Mary Smith 

Snug, a joiner Bloomer Vaughan 

Starveling, a tailor Jessie Daniel 

Oberon, King of the Fairies Marguerite Wallace 

Titania, Queen of the Fairies Elizabeth Southerland 

Puck, or Robin Goodfellow Lida Taylor 

Attendant Fairies: Lucile O'Brian, Selma Edmundson; Tree hearts: Louise 
Smaw, Louise Stalvey, Nellie Dunn, Ella Bonner, Georgia Keene. 

Peaseblossom Mary Moye Carper 

Cobweb Mary Wright 

Mustardseed Fannie Green Allen 

Moth Mary Lee Pittman 

Other Fairies: Martha Moye, Elizabeth Austin, Jane Hadley, Mary Forbes, 
Frances Porter. Louise Phelps, Virginia Perkins, Hester Phelps, EfBe May 
W^inslow, Edna Davenport, Lela Davenport, Frances Norman, Huldah Albrit- 
ton, Elizabeth Harrington, Mary Moye Savage, Florence Overton. 

Child stolen from Indian king Fred Forbes 

Attendants on Theseus and Hippolyta: Anna Whitehurst, Fannie Lee Pat- 
rick, Lela Durham, Ruby Vann, Lalla Wynne, Eunice Vause, Alma Spivey, 
Viola Gaskins, Eva Pridgen. 

Torch-bearers: Janet Matthews, Mary Secrest, Trilby Smith, Myra Fleming. 
Chorus: Members of the cast and Julia Rankin, Katherine White. Hattie 
Turner, Nelle White, Marjorie Pratt, Naomi Dail. Dinabel Floyd, Ava Craver. 
Jessamine Ashley, Fannie Bishop, Sophia Mann. 

Georgia Keene. 

Reception to Seniors 

The reception of President and Mrs. R. H. Wright to the Senior Class 
of the Training School on the evening of April 17th from 9 to 11. o'clock 
was the most brilliant school social event of the year. 

The parlor, dining room, library, study and hall were thrown into one 
and beautifully decorated in school colors, purple and gold, irises, violets 
and jonquils being the flowers used to carry out the color scheme. 

In the receiving line were Mi's. Wright and President Wright, Mrs. 
Clara Davis, Miss Daisy Bailey Waitt, adviser for the Senior Class, 
Mrs. Beckwith, Lady Principal, and Mrs. Louis Wilson, of Chapel Hill, 
sister of President Wright. 

Class of 1916 85 

As the guests entered Master William Wright received the cards at the 
door; Misses Sallie Joyner Davis and Kate Lewis received the guests in 
the front hall; little Miss Mary Wright directed them to the dressing 
room ; Miss Mamie E, Jenkins introduced them to the line ; Miss Helen 
Strong directed them to the punch bowl in the rear of the hall, where 
Misses Maria Graham and Ola Ross presided at the punch bowl, which 
was artistically arranged in a setting of violets and smilax. 

After the guests had all arrived they were seated at tables and the 
game of rook was the entertainment of the evening, Mrs. Nannie F. 
Jeter assisted with the twelve tables of rook. As the players progressed 
or went down there was much laughter and fun. 

During the evening Miss Lillian Parker sang beautifully several solos, 
and Misses Sherman and Fahnestock played lovely duets. When the 
games were stopped delicious refreshments were served. 

The guests were the forty-nine young ladies of the Senior Class, mem- 
bers of the faculty and all connected with the school, and a member of 
the Board of Trustees, Mr. F. C. Harding, and Mrs. Harding. 

The annual reception given to the Senior Class by the President and 
his wife is always looked forward to as the crowning event of the social 
life in the Training School girl's life. The reception was one of the 
most enjoyable and one of the most beautiful in the series of receptions 
given by them to the graduating classes. — Greenville Reflector, April 18. 

School Activities 


Presidents of Societies. 
Edgar Allan Poe. Sidney Lanier. 

Nannie Mac. Brown. Ophelia O'Brian. 

Commencement Maushals. 
Chief: Juanita Weedon, Edgar Allan Poe Society. 


Poe Society. Lanier Society. 

Jessie Bishop. EfRe Baugham. 

Nannie Mac. Brown. Julia Elliott. 

Lucille Bullock. Christine Overman. 

Helen Gardner. Virginia Sledge. 

The societies have devoted their energies this spring to the question 
of planting the front campus. This is given in full in another part of 
this issue of the Quarterly. 


The Junior Class of the Training School at assembly period on Wednes- 
day and Thursday, April 19 and 20, gave an excellent two-part pro- 
gram as a celebration of the tercentenary of Shakespeare's death, which 
fell on Easter Sunday, April 23. The life and work of the greatest of 
all poets was reviewed. Two of the greatest and most familiar passages 
from his plays were read, songs from the plays and one of the period 
were sung and two of the dances were given. The audience insisted on 
having each of the dances repeated. 

The program was as follows : 


Introduction by Lizzie Stewart, president of class. 

Poem — "The Pageant Passes" Anna White 

Piano Duet from "Midsummer Night's Dream." 

Mabel Maultsby and Lou Ellen Dupree 

Biography of Shakespeare Nannie Mac. Brown 

Elizabethan Chorus— "Drink to Me Only with Thine Eyes" Class 

The Fame of Shakespeare, and Why We Should Study Him. .Fannie Lee Spier 
Elizabethan Dance — "Green Sleeve" Twelve members of the class 


The Works of Shakespeare Mary Cowell 

Vocal Duet — "Tell Me Where is Fancy Bred". . .Helen Bell and Gertrude Cook 

Shakespeare's Theatre Ophelia O'Brian 

Elizabethan Chorus — "Hark, Hark, the Lark" Class 

Readings from Shakespeare — 

(a) The Seven Ages of Man from "As You Like it." 

School Activities 87 

(b) Portia's Speech on Mercy and Justice — "Merchant of Venice," 

Viola Kilpatrick 

Elizabethan Dance — "Ribbon Dance" Twelve members of class 

Class Song. 

The crowning class social affair of the school year was held May 8. 
Both Juniors as well as Seniors had awaited this hig event with much 
anticipation. Further details of the Junior-Senior reception will be 
found in the next issue. 

The second year Academic, or "B," Class of the Training School held 
their annual assembly exercises on Saturday morning, April 22. They 
presented an interesting Shakespearean program. Members of the class 
representing some of the women in Shakespeare's plays gave short 
scenes in which women alone appear. The class marched in singing 
an old English song, "There was an Old English Gentleman." Cellie 
Ferrell explained the program and introduced the characters. 

Eosalind and Celia, Sophia Cooper and Bessie Lee Russell; Juliet 
and the nurse, Vivian Hudnell and Lizzie Smith ; Ophelia, Ethel Smith ; 
Hero and Ursula, Flora Barnes and Helen Crofton; Beatrice, Claudia 
Teel; Cordelia, Louise Croom; Cleopatra, Irene Wiggins; Bianca and 
Katherine, Ethel Stanfield and Roberta Floyd; Portia and ISTerissa, 
Bernie Allen and Fannie Bishop. During the program, "It was a lover 
and his lass" from "As You Like It," and "Sigh no More, Ladies," from 
"Much Ado About Nothing," were sung by the class. As introductory 
to the scenes from "The Merchant of Venice" the record "Tell Me 
Where is Fancy Bred" was played on the Victrola. The class song, 
which is a rollicking parody on "Under the Greenwood Tree," was sung 
at the close. 

Miss Camille Robinson, president of the class, conducted the devotional 

On Saturday evening, April 15, after the regular business meeting of 
each class the "A," or first year Academic class, entertained its sister 
class, the Juniors, in the recreation hall. The hall was attractively 
decorated with pennants and the "A" Class colors, green and white. 
The guests were met at the door by Misses Thelma Smith and Rena 
Harrison. They were given pencils and paper and each drew a number 
from a box which aided them in securing a partner for an advertisement 
contest which followed. Pictures from advertisements were hung on the 
wall and the contestants were to guess what each advertised. A prize 
was given to the couple who guessed correctly the most advertisements. 

Music and dancing were enjoyed throughout the evening. Ice-cream 
was served by members of the class. Everybody had a jolly good time. 

88 The Tkainino School Quabteely 


Volley Ball, which is a new sport in the school, has caused much 
excitement and friendly rivalry this spring. In the preliminary games 
the "A" and "F" classes were the winners. The tournament games were 
played during the second week of May. These games count towards 
the winning of the general athletic cup. The "A" Class won in the 

The tennis games preliminary to the tournament were played during 
the first week of May. Tennis has more points to its credit than any 
other form of athletics ; therefore, the victory was an extremely hard 
fought one. The final games were played during the second week of 
May. The Senior class won the championship from the Juniors. 

Four classes came near the same average in cross-country walking. 
The competition in this sport was quite keen. The walks are required 
to be three miles long and they have been made especially delightful this 
spring by occasional picnic suppers. The walkers take lunches with 
them on these days, and instead of being back by the regular dinner 
hour, spend that time in the woods. 

At first the group of walkers was not so large as to require more than 
one chaperon, but recently the crowd has become so large that several 
groups had to be formed. 

The "B" Class won the championship in walking. The Senior Class 
won the general athletic cup as they had first place in tennis and second 
place in walking. 

Y. w. a A. 

The officers and cabinet members for the year 1916-17 are as follows: 
Martha O'Xeal, President ; Juanita Weedon, Vice-President ; Lillie Mae 
Whitehead, Secretary ; Agnes Hunt, Treasurer ; Mabel Maultsby, Chair- 
man of Music Committee; Helen Gardner, Chairman of Social Com- 
mittee: Viola Finch, Chairman of Mission Study Committee; Gertnide 
Cook, Chairman of Poster Committee; Ina McGlohon, Chairman of 
Room Committee; Hallie Jones, Chairman of Bible Study Committee; 
Ethel Stanfield, Chairman of Sunshine Committee; Fannie Lee Spier, 
Chairman Religious Committee. 

The officers were elected at the regular business meeting on Saturday 
night, March 4. After the business meeting was over the "Whites" 
entertained the "Blues." At the first of the jubilee month the Y. W. 
C. A. girls were divided into two groups, namely, the "Whites" and 
"Blues." The object of each group was to get as many new members 
as possible and it was agreed then that the one getting the fewest number 
should entertain the more successful. 

School Activities 89 

The Sunday evening service on March 5 was a song service. After the 
service, Miss Muffly played some new records on the Victrola and most 
of the girls stayed to hear them. 

Miss Marguerite Higgs, a Greenville girl who took an active part in 
Y. W. C. A. work at Meredith, led in the services of the Y, W. C. A. on 
March 12. The lesson made a special appeal to the students because it 
was presented as from one school girl to another. She read the Scripture 
lesson from the first chapter of Romans. The main idea of the lesson 
was that with increased training of the mind comes increased responsi- 
bility to our fellowmen. 

Rev. J. H. Griffith, rector of the Episcopal Church of Kinston, con- 
ducted the services at the Training School on Sunday evening, March 19. 
The young women were greatly impressed hy the magnetism and charm- 
ing personality of Mr. Griffith, and by his scholarly exposition of the 
lesson of the evening. 

He read as his lesson the nineteenth chapter of Matthew, and took his 
text from the fifteenth chapter of St. John : "Lord, we know not whither 
thou goest, and how can we know the way?" The question was asked 
by the mathematician of the apostolic family, Thomas, and was a 
human question. All of us are constantly asking questions about life 
and the meaning; he quoted a letter he had received from some one 
asking help in solving the problems of life. "All human questions have 
divine answers," he declared. Christ's answer to Thomas is an answer 
for all, "I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life," simple words, but 
speaking volumes of information. 

The Greeks, to whom we are greatly indebted, were always asking 
questions about life, what was the beginning, the end, and what the true 
way to live, and Mr. Griffith explained the Greek terms for these ideas 
and the significance of the answer. But the first real and complete 
answer was given in Hebrews, where the declaration is made that Christ 
is the Alpha and the Omega. He further explained the philosophy of 
the Greeks, making the statement that the world today is full of Epi- 
cureans; he said that the Stoics were wrong in that they believed life 
was all bad if any of it was bad. The Christian belief goes far beyond 
either of these and says that life is good. Christ is the satisfaction of 
the heart and the mind, and we need nothing but Christ. 

At the close Mr. Griffith brought the lesson home to the young women 
by asking them what questions they were asking of life ; what they most 
desired: a butterfly existence, gold, to be better dressed, or popularity? 
He reminded them that they came here to get light ; not simply intellec- 
tual light, but light to help them to work out the problems of life, reach- 
ing forward into the future. He urged them to realize their gifts of 
mind, etc. He urged them not to be satisfied with little things ; to re- 
member that every soul has the divine spark in it ; everybody has a work 

90 The Thaininq School Quartekly 

of service to do; a woman can Avin by tenderness, forgiveness, sympathy 
and love. His personal appeal at the close left a strong impression upon 
the minds of the young women. 

Mrs. J. J. Walker, of Greenville, led in the Sunday evening service 
on March 26. She read the Scripture lesson from Matthew 25, and 
then she gave a vivid description of the Y. W. C. A. in Chicago. At the 
close of the service Miss Edith Lee, one of Mrs. Walker's pupils in 
Expression, gave a reading. 

The installation services of the new Y. W. C. A. officers which were 
held at the Training School on Sunday evening, April 9, were simple 
and impressive. 

Allen Gardner, the retiring president, gave a review of her work; of 
what she had done and the pleasure she had taken in the Y. W. C. A. 

Martha O'lSTeal, the new president, read the names of the girls she 
has chosen for her cabinet for the present year. She said that because 
of her inexperience she did not have a definite policy worked out, but 
that the association would strive to promote higher ideals, develop a 
genuine spirit of service and increase their knowledge of Christ. 

Mr. Austin, representing the advisory committee of the association, 
read the Scripture lesson from ISTehemiah 2. Then he took up the 
thought where the president left off and impressed upon the members the 
necessity of their loyal support to the Y. W. C. A. work. 

Mr. F. C. Harding led the Sunday evening services April 2. It 
meant a great deal to the young women to hear a strong talk full of high 
ideals from a man from out in the world, one who is not a minister, but 
one who had a big message, and he presented a close study of certain 
phases of the life of St. Paul, from which great lessons were drawn. 
It was interesting to note the point of view of the lawyer; no one else 
would have seen the important part that Paul's adherence to the law 
played in the dissemination of the Gospel. 

He took the stand that Julius Caesar had as much a part in opening 
the door to the world as Paul himself did, because it was through his 
work in extending the Roman empire that it was possible for Paul to 
become a Roman citizen and the right to appeal to Rome, and thus 
become a missionary. The manhood of Paul rather than the spirituality 
of Paul appealed to Caesar, yet God was speaking and working through 

He brought out the idea that Napoleon was, in a sense, an inspired 
man. In the application he said that it may be that the United States 
now, through the Mexican expedition, may be helping to work out a 
divine plan ; it may be by this means that a part of the world will be 
lifted up and improved. 

School Activities 91 

In the direct application to the girls Mr. Harding urged the young 
women to remember that they would be forces in moulding public opin- 
ion, and impressed upon them the importance of remembering that they 
must have high ideals and help work out God's plans, 

Mrs. Jeter led the services on Sunday evening, April 9. She gave 
Solomon's description of the all-round ideal woman as given in Proverbs. 
Mrs. Jeter's explanation of the chapter was excellent. She brought 
out various phases of woman's life. 

The services of Sunday evening, April 16, were led by Miss Jenkins, 
She read the chapter in the Bible in which Christ explains why he uses 
the parable and gives several parables to illustrate his point. She then 
read three modern prose allegories from "Story Tell Lib," by Slosson, 
"The Shet-up Posy," "The Horse That Believed He'd Get There," and 
"All Sorts of Bundles." 

Rev. H. N. Blanchard, pastor of the Memorial Baptist Church, con- 
ducted the Y. W. C, A. services on Sunday evening, April 23. The 
Scripture reading was Luke 6. His theme was "Devotional Bible Study 
and Prayer." His text was Mark 1 :35. 

In his opening remarks he spoke of how much the Y. M. C, A. and 
the Y. W, C. A. appealed to him, for it was the Y. M. C. A. at A. and M, 
College that led him to enter the ministry. He made his decision while 
at the Y, M, C. A. Conference at Asheville, to which he was sent as a 

In developing his theme he emphasized the value of observing morning 
watch, first giving the meaning and then telling why we should do it. 
First, he said that Christ's life was a life of prayer, thus teaching us by 
His own example what He commanded us to do. Second, if He needed 
to pray, how much more do we need to pray. Third, it is impossible to 
live close to God all the time; therefore, in the beginning of the day, 
before we are tempted, we should put on the armor of prayer. Fourth, 
we should emphasize Bible study more in school life, in order to form 
habits of prayer, for good habits are as hard to break as bad habits. 

He said that the woman who does the greatest things is not neces- 
sarily the most popular, or the most talented, but the one who "takes 
time to be Holy." "Too busy" is not an excuse for neglecting prayer, 
for it is only the "busy" who have time to do anything worth while." 

In giving instances bearing on this point, he mentioned that the boys 
at the West Point Military Academy have only forty-five spare minutes 
each day; and yet it is said that over fifty per cent are obsei-ving the 
morning watch. 

The students were very much impressed by the sincerity and intense 
earnestness of Mr, Blanchard. 

92 The Training School C^iaktekly 

The Y. W. C, A., on Sunday evening, Ai)ril i2t), was led by Superin- 
teudeut Hoy Taylor, of the Greenville Graded Schools. 

Mr. Taylor read a i)art of Matthew 5, the sermon on the mount. He 
put down one proposition and developed it logically, giving an example 
of straight thinking, one of the things he urged on his listeners. He 
presented the one big idea of "Be Ye Perfect Even as your Father in 
Heaven is Perfect." He developed this by a comparison of the material 
world, in which there is no such thing as lost energy or wasted matter, 
with the physical world. How far this goes over into the mental life he 
said he was not sure, but he believed it applied there too, but he was 
sure that there was a potentiality in every life. The spiritual life is so 
tied up with the others that it is hard to tell where they leave off and 
that begins. 

In the development of his theme Mr. Taylor presented some very 
interesting points which he proved very logically and forcefully. He 
asked many pertinent questions about life which made the girls think 
seriously. He said there could be only one superlative, one best, in each 
life. He said the responsibility for the direction of each life rests with 
the individual, and therefore he would not give directions, but sugges- 
tions. These suggestions were good, sound common sense principles 
which harmonize with the great laws of the universe. 

School Notes 

Sunday, June 4, conimencenient sermon by Dr. Thos. 
Commence- jj^ j^^^^. ^^ Westminster, Md., President of Western 
ment Program ,^,,^11 

Maryland College. 

Sunday evening, 8 :30, sermon before the Young Women's Christian 
Association, Kev. W. B. Oliver, of Florence, South Carolina. 

Monday, June 5, 6 :30 p. m.. Class Day exercises. 

Tuesday, June 6, 10 a. m., meeting of the Board of Trustees; meeting 
of Alumnas Association ; 8 p. m., Alumnse dinner. 

Wednesday, June 7, 10 :30 a. m., annual address before the gradu- 
ating class, Hon. T. W. Bickett; 11:30 a. m., graudating exercises. 

The Greenville Reflector had this to say: "A very 

*jt* \f' large audience filled the Training School auditorium 
and Mrs. Macy ° 

Monday night, May 1, to hear Miss Helen Keller, Green- 
ville and the neighboring towns being well represented. All were anx- 
ious to see and hear the most remarkable woman in the world about 
whom they had read much. Blind, deaf and dumb from early childhood, 
these physical handicaps have been overcome, and few people are more 
highly educated or more entertaining than Miss Keller. Not only is 
she intelligent, she is brilliant, cheerful, witty, the very soul of happi- 
ness, and gets more enjoyment out of life than the majority of normal 
people. Miss Keller has learned to express herself in speech to a degree 
that it is remarkable, and can make herself be heard distinctly over a 
large auditorium. 

"The entertainment of Monday evening began with an address by 
Mrs. Macy, who for twenty-five years has been Miss Keller's teacher, 
and to whom her wonderful development is largely due. Mrs. Macy 
started at the beginning of this blind and deaf girl's education and gave 
an outline of how she had first learned objects, next, that everything 
had a name and on step by step until she learned to articulate and to 
speak though she could not hear her own voice. Mrs. Macy's sketch 
of Miss Keller's life was truly interesting and prepared the audience 
for the wonderful revelation that followed when Miss Keller herself 
was led upon the stage. Smiling, bowing and with a countenance aglow 
with happiness, this young woman whose fame is world-wide stood before 
her audience. 

"That the audience might first get accustomed to Miss Keller's enuncia- 
tion and understand her more readily, there was some conversation 
between her teacher and herself. Miss Keller recited the 23d Psalm and 
then delivered her message of happiness. She showed that she was not 
denied the joys and beauties of life because of her physical defects, but 

94 The Training School Quabterly 

that true happiness is in the heart, and comes through making the most 
of one's surroundings and doing all possible for the happiness of others. 

"After the address the audience was permitted to ask questions which 
Miss Keller would answer. With one hand resting upon the lips and 
throat of Mrs. Macy, who acted as interpreter, repeating the questions 
which Miss Keller answered promptly. In some of the answers the 
large degree of wit she possessed was displayed. 

"Many times the audience applauded, which Miss Keller recognized 
and appreciated. Soon after coming on the stage she detected the pres- 
ence of a lily by its odor. She found and caressed the flower and 
spoke of its beauty and fragrance. 

"Greenville people certainly appreciated the Training School's getting 
Miss Keller to come here and give them the opportunity to hear her." 

Educational When Col. Olds visited the school in the winter he 

Trip to suggested that the girls be given an opportunity to spend 

Raleigh ^ day in Raleigh and he offered to act as host and guide. 

Miss Davis made inquiry among the girls and found a number who 
wished to take such a trip. Many of the students are from the extreme 
eastern part of the State and have not had the opportunity of visiting 
the Capital. Others who had been to Raleigh had never visited the 
various points of interest. The result is told in the News and Observer 
of May 6, as follows : 

"Eighty-eight of the students of the East Carolina Teachers Training 
School at Greenville, under the chaperonage of two of the teachers, Miss 
Sallie Joyner Davis and Miss Lewis, spent nine and a half delightful 
hours in Raleigh yesterday without a dull moment in all that time. 

"They were met at the Union Station by Col. Fred A. Olds and Prof. 
L. C. Brogden, of the State Department of Public Instruction, and were 
escorted to a local department store, the headquarters, where Mr. J. B. 
Pearce presented each with a bouquet of sweetpeas. They then retired 
to the LaFayette Cafe, where they were the guests of the Raleigh Mer- 
chants' Association. 

"They next visited the Commercial National Bank, took a look at the 
city auditorium and the new Wake County courthouse. They were 
received later by Governor Locke Craig at the executive offices. Among 
the students were three cousins of Governor Craig, all from Gates County. 
All the others. Governor Craig claimed, were his cousins also. A photo- 
graph of the party was made with the Governor standing well in front. 
This occurred at the monument to the Women of the Confederacy. The 
Church of the Good Shepherd was later visited. 

"The State Museum was the next objective point. There they were 
met by Curator Brimley and his assistant, T. W. Adickes, and were 
shown through the entire place, including the workshop. They were 

School Notes 95 

here given souvenirs in the way of postcards. State Entomologist 
Franklin Sherman joined the party and remained with them for some 

"A visit was made to the Governor's mansion, which the Governor had 
placed at the disposal of the party, telling them it was their house. 
From it they went to the establishment of a well known ice cream 
manufacturer where they were met by the owner, his wife and friends, 
who served the students with punch and ice cream and cake. 

"The State School for the Blind was also visited. There the party was 
met by Superintendent John E. Ray and shown through the wonderful 
workshop in which the older girls, under the direction of Miss Davis, 
do all sorts of things. They took a special view of the boys' woodwork- 
ing and sloyd shop, which astonished them. They saw the blind chil- 
dren at play and visited the library where the blind read with their 
finger tips. 

"The next stunt of the day began at the Capitol Square after that 
building had been visited and well explained, and the important statues 
in the grounds pointed out. This was under the management of Mr. 
J. B. Pearce and consisted of a two-hour ride in four big motor trucks, 
each loaded to the limit. This tour included the beautiful grounds of 
the Central Hospital for the Insane, the Agricultural and Mechanical 

"The students of the college cheered the girls who returned the com- 
pliment with their school yell. The Y. M. C. A. was also inspected, 
and then the route was taken for the Country Club, where President 
Charles E. Johnson, Jr., had provided lemonade -galore. The beauty 
of the golf links was a delight to the girls, a number of whom had never 
been up-country and to whom the hills and the water falls were wonders. 

"Arriving at the State Administration Building the visitors went to 
the Supreme Court room where they were met by Chief Justice Walter 
Clark and State Auditor "Wood. Col. Olds introduced Chief Justice 
Clark, after he had placed Misses Davis and Lewis, the teachers, and 
three of the students in the chairs of the justices. Chief Justice Clark 
made a brief talk in which he said he expected soon to see women grace 
the bench. He was warmly applauded and was assured by the visitors 
that they were all suffragettes, to the last one. Auditor Wood was next 
presented and declared that Raleigh had not before been visited by a 
group of more charming young Avomen and declared the State was proud 
of them and the school they represented. The veteran marshal of the 
court, Mr. Robert H. Bradley, was introduced. His thirty years of 
service was referred to by Colonel Olds. 

"The party next went to the Hall of History, where in the portrait 
gallery Auditor Wood, himself a Confederate Veteran, presented to the 
E'orth Carolina Historical Commission on behalf of Mrs. W. P. Roberts, 
an oil portrait of the late General W. P. Roberts, whom he characterized 

96 The Training School Qdartebly 

as an officer of great ability and courage, the youngest of the Confederate 
brigadiers. The portrait was accepted by Colonel Olds, who referred to 
its position on the wall, next to the portrait of the two other Confederate 
cavalry generals, Rufus Barringer, of Charlotte, and James B. Gordon, 
of Wilkes, and to the fact that he had brought the latter portrait to 
Raleigh this week. 

"This ended the day's events and at 9 :30 the Norfolk Southern train 
pulled out of Union Station, Colonel Olds telling the splendid group of 
young women good night, and saying that next Friday evening he would 
be with them again in their own school auditorium where he will put 
on a fine concert by the full bands of the State School for the Blind. 

"The teachers and all the students desired Colonel Olds to express to 
the people of Raleigh their unbounded gratitude for the greatest day 
of their lives, and to say that the whole school appreciates it, and their 
President, Robert H. Wright, sends his greetings to Raleigh, and his 
assurance that this visit of the teachers and students is to be made an 
annual event, one of the most important of the school year." 

Tired, but happy, the sight-seers returned to the school at 1 :15 a. m. 
the next day. At assembly the 88 marched on the rostrum so they 
could see how the auditorium appeared with 88 vacant seats, and so that 
those who remained at home could see how the Raleigh crowd appeared. 
Then the 88 told in song, to the tune of "Tenting Tonight," the events 
of the memorable day. The refrain was only "A. and M., A. and M.," 
etc. One of the group gave this report of the day : 

The visit to the new State Building was the significant event — the 
capstone of the day. We reached it after it was lighted up for the 
evening, and never will we forget the impression of its brilliancy and 
simplicity. We went straight to the Hall of History, where we witnessed 
the presentation of the portrait of Brigadier General Roberts by one of 
his comrades. State Auditor Wood. In a few well chosen words. Colonel 
Olds accepted the portrait. This little ceremony was specially arranged 
for us, and it contributed not a little bit to our pleasure. From the 
Hall we went to the Supreme Court room and met Chief Justice Clark 
and Librarian Bradley. In his introduction of Judge Clark Colonel 
Olds spoke of him "as the State's leading champion of the cause of your 
sex." The brief but inspirational talk of the State's great jurist gave 
us the feeling that the cause which he champions must win in the end. 

After this we followed Colonel Olds through the Hall of History and 
heard with glowing pride his story of that wonderful collection. Our 
day closed here. At nine-thirty a tired, but an enthusiastic, happy set 
of girls was on its way back to Greenville. One of them, when asked 
what she had enjoyed most, voiced the sentiment of every girl in her 
answer : "Colonel Olds. He has given me the greatest day I ever had." 
If "our day" is a fair sample of how he spends his days, he is in the 
highest sense of the word, a benefactor of his State. 

School Notes 97 

Banquet to ^n Saturday evening, April 1, a six o'clock dinner 

Hope Fire was given at the Training School in honor of the Hope 

Company ]i'[j-Q Company as an expression of the appreciation the 

authorities of the school feel for the excellent work the fire company did 
in saving the dining hall from total destruction just one year before. 

All the members of the fire company and their wives, all of the people 
connected with the Training School who do not make their homes in the 
school, and Mr. E. H. Evans, and Mr. Allsbrook, who did such effective 
work in getting the building repaired for use, with their wives, were the 
invited guests of the school, making in all about fifty. Some of these 
could not accept the invitation, however. 

After the guests had assembled the young ladies of the school dressed 
in white marched in by twos, singing as they filed in. The new dining 
room was beautiful in the soft lights. The tables were decorated with 
the school colors, purple and gold, violets being the chief flowers used. 
The place cards were jonquils in water colors. An elegant five-course 
dinner was served. The young ladies who were waiting on the table 
brought in the "pineapple pie," as it was called on the menu, and placed 
on each table to be cut at the table. There was much merriment when 
the pies were cut and pine sawdust and apple peelings poured out. This 
was the only touch that was a reminder of the fact that it was All 
Fools' Day. 

Prof. H. E. Austin, chairman of the committee on arrangements, acted 
as toastmaster. He paid a high tribute to firemen in general, but to the 
members of the Hope Fire Company in particular. He assured them 
that the dinner was not for the purpose of recalling the unpleasant 
features of the night of the fire, but for the sole purpose of expressing 
the gratitude those connected with the school felt to the company for 
preventing it from being worse than it was. He called on Professor 
Wilson, who is secretary of the board of trustees, to say something. He 
quoted the famous story of the mayor, who, in trying to get the attention 
of the crowd who were assembled to hear Vice-President Marshall, said, 
"Listen ! I am not going to make a speech ; I am going to say something." 

Professor Wilson thanked the company in behalf of the board for 
what they had done for the school. He made a witty speech, telling 
an apt story. 

President Wright next spoke for the school. He told the guests that 
shortly after the fire the board of trustees directed the president to give 
a dinner to the fire company to show the great appreciation that the 
school felt for the prompt, brave, and efficient work the company did on 
the night of iVpril 1, 1915. This dinner was to be given at some time 
when conditions were favorable. The illness and death of Governor 
Jarvis, and the fact that the dining hall and new kitchen were not com- 
pleted until late in the year prevented the carrying out of the wishes of 
the board until so long after the fire that it was deemed best to wait until 

98 The Training School Qiautkuly 

the evening of the anniversary of the fire. He told of the great interest 
Governor Jarvis took in the planning of the new dining room; he planned 
practically every detail of the building as it now stands and it is well- 
nigh perfect. The board determined that his ideas should be carried 
out and bent every energy to that end. This, declared President Wright, 
was the last piece of work that Governor Jarvis planned for the school. 

President Wright rehearsed the trying situation that had to be faced 
the night of the fire and spoke feelingly of the loyalty of the community 
in rallying to the emergency, when every home was opened to the students 
and faculty. He paid high tributes to the efficient work of the fire 
company that saved all but the roof of the building. He commended 
especially the contractors and workmen who left their regular work and 
came to the rescue of the school, getting the building in shape so quickly 
that only one week's time was lost from school work, doing the work in 
what even yet seems an incredibly ^hort time. 

After President Wright sat down Miss Lalla Wynne, of the Senior 
Class, proposed a toast to the "fire laddies" which was echoed by the 
entire school. Then all of the young ladies sang a song to the "fire 

At the close of the dinner, Fire Chief Overton, in behalf of the fire- 
men, expressed the keen pleasure they felt in having their work, which 
was only responding to the call of duty, so much appreciated. He gave 
a glimpse into the life of a volunteer fireman, merely touching on the 
dangers, and giving as the motive that urges him on to fight fire that it 
Avas the answer to the still small voice that whispers, "Go, help as you 
can." He said that in the whole twenty years that he had been a fire 
fighter this Avas the first time any such appreciation had been shown 
to the firemen, and on the other hand, their part was often kicks and 
knocks. He assured the school that whenever their services were needed 
the Hope Fire Company was ready and willing to respond to their call. 

The occasion was altogether a most festive aifair and unique in that it 
was a happy anniversary of what at the time seemed a disaster. As 
President Wright aptly said, "There is some good in every bad thing 
if you take it right." — Greemnlh Reflector, April 3. 

,.^^ „ . Mr. Charles IST. Xewcomb srave an artistic and charm- 

Cjj^p.. ing interpretation of "The Prince Chap" on the evening 

of March 20. He turned from the part of generous 

Peyton, "the Prince Chap," to that of the English Initler, or "Puckers," 

the "King," or "Claudia," the little girl who furnishes the motive for 

the story, with ease and swiftness. 

It is a difficult art to make characters stand before an audience as 

real personalities with their mannerisms and peculiarities of speech, 

when there is no stage setting, no costuming and when different people 

School Notes 99 

take the parts, but when only one does it all as Mr. Newcomb did, this 
is art. The expressions of pathos, humor, tenderness and various other 
shades of feeling were expressed without exaggeration. His gestures 
were simple, only such as were needed to help give the right turn to the 

The audience was indebted to the Lanier Literary Society for having 
Mr. Newcomb. This is the fifth year this society has brought to the 
school some treat. Heretofore they have brought some speaker of 
literary reputation, but this year they decided to change and give another 
kind of literary entertainment. Each year the members of the Poe 
Society and the faculty are the special guests of the Laniers. 

The Singing Class of the Oxford Orphanage gave their concert at the 
auditorium of the Training School to a large and appreciative audience 
one evening during April. The people of Greenville are always glad to 
have the class with them, and nothing can be done too good for them. 
The receipts were $105. 

Eev. J. Clyde Turner, of Greensboro, while conducting a revival service 
at the Memorial Baptist Church of Greenville, made a talk to the 
students of the Training School, at their morning assembly. 

The theme of this talk was "Fidelity." He said that all fidelity could 
be summed up under fidelity to the Almighty God, and includes being 
faithful first of all to the convictions of one's soul. He believed whether 
one's place in the world be great or small all have ideals to which they 
should be faithful. He said a person, thus fulfilling his ideal, can look 
the whole world in the face and know that he has a right to demand 
respect from all; but he who does not strive towards this ideal loses 
respect for himself, respect for others and respect for God. 

Several concrete illustrations from public figures familiar to all made 
this message very forceful, and Mr. Turner delivered the message with 
such directness and sincerity that it made a strong impression on the 
young women of the school. 

Mr. E. L. Middleton, Sunday School Secretary for the Baptist Church, 
conducted exercises and made a talk at the morning assembly of the 
Training School, during the spring term. "Efficiency" was the subject 
of his discussion, for which he gave this definition : "Doing the thing 
in hand in the very best way to get the largest results." 

It should be the aim of every person to make himself more efficient, 
declared Mr. Middleton. As he was talking to prospective teachers, he 
made the talk particularly vital by urging them to remember that 
efficiency means something more than the mere teaching of subjects; it 
means character building. While the teaching of religion is not allowed 
in the public schools, every teacher should be a religious teacher. 

100 TnK Tkainino School Qiarterly 

There are two kinds of material tliat go into the making of human 
life, he said, vices and virtues. It is the teacher's part to develop the 
intellectual powers and virtues that make for the highest truth. 

Ihe sewing done by the students during the winter 

Sewing , , ", •, • ^ ^ e ^ J 

Exhibit term was placed on exhibit at the close oi the term, and 

the public was invited to inspect the work. This was 
done under the direction of Miss Armstrong, the teacher of Home 

The Junior Class is the only class that has lessons in sewing, but as 
this class numbered eighty-five, there was a large and creditable exhibit. 
Each member of the class was required to make a complete set of under- 
wear, a white dress, and a practical, everyday dress. This made the 
number of garments on exhibit amount to over five hundred. The white 
dresses were of soft material, flaxon, lawn or similar material, trimmed 
with dainty laces. The other dresses were of gingham or heavy white 
material. All dresses were made somewhat on the same general lines, 
but there was individuality shown in the trimming and details. 

The exhibit was arranged in the sewing room. The dresses were 
pinned to strips around the room or to burlap screens. The other gar- 
ments were neatly folded on tables. The decorations were of flowers and 
sweet myrtle. Ushers, wearing the dresses made during the term, showed 
the visitors around. The exhibit was indeed a credit to the sewing 

^. The piano students in the Junior Class gave a recital 

Junior Piano ^ ^ ^ - ^ ■ t ./.-.r 

Recital ^^ school at six-thirty on the evening of May 4. 

The program was as follows : 

Minuet Haydn 

Leona Tucker, Loretta Joyner 

Scherzino WoUenhaupt 

Mamie Mac. Brown 

Serenade Koelling 

Mary Wooten 

At the Fountain Vangoel 

Ophelia O'Brian 

Sans Souci Woods 

Blanche Satterwhite, Ola Carawan 

Serenade Espagnole Becker 

Loretta Joyner 

Berceuse I. Gimsky 

Eunice Hoover 

Chanson Engel 

Mabel Maultsby 

Rustic Dance Schytle 

Mary Wooten, Ruth Lowder 

Bird Song Jensen 

Serenade in D Moszskowski 

Lou Ellen Dupree 

School Notes 101 

"B" Piano A piano recital was given by the Mudents of the second 

year academic or "B" class during the second week of 
May, The program was as follows : 

1. Second Valse Godard 

First Piano, Louise Groom 
Second Piano, Agnes Hunt 

2. Gypsy Rondo Haydn 

Agnes Hunt 

3. Pixie's Good-night Song Brown 

Octavia Dunn 

4. The Chase Van Lear 

Irene Wiggins 

5. Barcarolle Burgmuller 

On the Meadow Lichner 

Cora Lancaster 

6. Chanson Triste Tschalkowsky 

Helen Lyon 

7. Valsette Boranski 

Hide and Seek Schytle 

Ethel Smith 

8. Toccatina Caprice Benson 

Bess Tillitt 

9. By the Brookside Karzanoff 

Louise Croom 

10. Metzi Katchen Behr 

First Piano — Helen Lyon, Olive Lang 
Second Piano — Cora Lancaster, Irene Wiggins 

Commence- The men of the faculty of the Training School have 

ment been in great demand as commencement speakers this 

Addresses spring. Their engagements were as follows : 

President "Wright, Enon School, Granville County, March 30; at 
Granville County Commencement, March 31; South Mills, Camden 
County, April 25; Garysburg, Northampton County, May 2; Bonlee 
High School, Chatham County, May 10; Biscoe High School, Moore 
County, June 1 ; and at Tarboro, Edgecombe County, June 2. 

Mr. C. W. Wilson, Galloway's Cross Eoads, Pitt County, March 10; 
Walstonburg, Pitt County, March 23 ; Beaufort County Commencement, 
March 31 ; Wenborn School, Greene County, April 12 ; Campbell's Creek 
School, Beaufort County, April 21 ; Franklin Graded School, Beaufort 
County, April 24; Swan Quarter High School, Hyde County, April 28; 
Palling Creek High School, Wayne County, May 2 ; and Leggett School, 
Edgecombe County, May 5. 

Mr. H. E. Austin, Dixon School, Pitt County, April 14; Coward's 
School, Greene County, April 18; Arapahoe, Pamlico County, April 21; 
and Everett's School, Martin County, May 5, 

Mr. L. K. Meadows, Tarboro School, Edgecombe County, March 18; 
Elks School, Pitt County, April 12 ; Sunbury High School, Gat^s County, 
April 25; and Fountain School, Pitt County, April 27. 

102 The Training School Quabteely 

President Robert H. Wright attended the meeting of the Southern 
Conference, which met in New Orleans, April 17-20, the week before 
Easter. After his return he gave the students a most interesting de- 
scription of the city of New Orleans. They felt almost as if they, too, 
had taken a peep into the old French part of the city, and had walked 
up the levee to the river. 

Miss Daisy Bailey "Waitt attended the annual meeting of the North 
Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs, which met in High Point the 
first week in May. Miss Waitt is chairman of the Department of 

President Wright conducted a class in child study during the late 
winter and early spring. The class was composed of about forty of the 
women of Greenville, most of them mothers. The text used was Kilpat- 
rick's "Fundamentals of Child Study." The members of the class were 
enthusiastic over the course and regretted that it could not continue 

All interested in the planting of the campus, and that is everybody 
connected with the school, rejoiced to see Mr. Busbee arrive on the 
morning of April 6 and begin the planting. 

Miss Graham is building a residence on a lot adjoining the school 
grounds. She and two other members of the faculty will keep house 
together next year. 

Miss Muffly and Mrs. Wright attended the Music Festival May 4-5. 

The group that visited Raleigh are under many obligations to the 
Boylan-Pearce Company Department Store and to the George White 
Ice Cream Company for entertainment during their visit to Raleigh. 
The Merchants' Association entertained them at luncheon.